Step-by-Step Pathways to a PhD in the USA

 You have just completed your undergraduate degree and you want to pursue a doctorate in the USA for both business life and academic career reasons. What will you do? How to get a PhD in America? What are the universities for doctorate?

I did PhD in USA between 2008-2013
Since there are always questions on this subject through the minus dictionary, I said let me explain in detail starting from the time of application.

According to the doctor system in america europe and turkey works in a slightly different system. Generally, in Europe, first a bachelor's degree, then a master's (master) is obtained, then a doctorate is applied and then a doctorate is completed. After getting a 4-year undergraduate degree in the USA, the doctorate program is started and usually in the second year of this, a master's diplomacy is given and the doctorate is continued in the following years. In short, the majority of doctoral programs in the USA come in the form of master + doctorate packages.

Let me try to explain how things work by giving examples from my own adventure. To apply for a doctorate, you have to start your preparations long before. I am fortunate to study at regular university in America, because I received a lot of help from my current professors during my transition from undergraduate to doctorate. I finished university in turkey I supposed I'm guessing more difficult. While studying at university, my undergraduate department was psychology and if you are studying this department, it is almost necessary to get a master's or doctorate in order to find a good job, so I started preparations in my second year with the advice of my professors.

PhD applications are usually made on the days you start your last year at the university (such as September), the results come like January-February, and while you graduate from the university in May, you also start to move to the city where you will start your doctorate, but the actual preparations start much earlier. This is because of what is generally asked of you when applying for scholarship doctoral programs. To list without the order of importance: 1) application form, 2) reference letters, 3) research experience, 4) gre scores, 5) your GPA, 6) letter of intent (I made my intention to do a doctorate for God's consent). Other things specific to departments and schools may be required, but in general terms.
In order to prepare for this, what you need to do at university starts from the first year. It is very important to take courses such as "introduction to science", "introduction to statistics", "philosophy of science", "history of science" in your first year at university because you will be asked to know whatever department you are studying and whatever field you want to do your doctorate and you will use what you learned in these courses Because no matter what field of science you are in, the methods, philosophy, and logic are more or less similar (wouldn't be science if they were not similar?).

From your sophomore year, try to take 1-2 more courses in statistics and general philosophy of science. Learn to use at least one (2 if possible) statistics program if possible. You can easily learn spss used without writing code, but learning r-like programs that work with coding will take time, but from your 2nd year, you can start from the edge. If there is an "introduction to programming" course at your school, you should definitely take it because you will see it very useful. Whether you're studying physics or psychology, learning python gives you an extreme advantage in experiments and simulations.

The third year of university is extremely important for entry to a PhD in America because you will apply at the end of the third year. so everything ends this year. It is extremely important and highly recommended that you go to the professors who do academic research at your school and start volunteering assistantships. In fact, almost no one can get a scholarship from a good department without doing this. Almost all those who want to do their doctorate in America do this, but those who come from outside realize the importance of this much later. Especially in your letter of intent, saying "I worked as an assistant for 1 year with this teacher and took part in these researches" may be the most important factor that determines whether you will be accepted to the school with a scholarship.
In the meantime, you need to choose the sub-department you want to do your doctorate in and which subjects you want to do research on while doing your doctorate. For example, if your department is psychology, it is not enough to just call it psychology, but is it experimental psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology ... etc. you have to specify. You are expected to talk about it in detail while writing the letter of intent. This will be a great advantage if there is a teacher who wants to study the subjects you want to work in the school you apply to, but if there is no teacher at the school who wants to do research on the same subject as you, you are relatively more likely to be rejected from there.

If you are already studying at university in America and you have a good teacher with whom you are an assistant, you may think, "I will stay at school after graduation and continue to study with the same teacher", but this is very rare. In the USA, the system requires you to do your undergraduate and doctorate in different schools because different experiences, different cultures, different perspectives, different perspectives are acquired in different schools. so it's rare for undergraduate and doctoral students to leave the same school, even in the same state.

Meanwhile, when you are in the third year of the university, you will make a list of the schools you want to apply for a PhD. This is more difficult and complicated than you think and you have to start early. As for the reason, first of all, you need to determine in advance which schools have a doctorate program in your department, which have scholarships, how many students they receive that year, and which teachers and which teachers do research on which subjects. In my time (2008 year peh peh) the application fee was $ 50-60 per school and my budget was limited. That's why I chose 10 schools and applied to them. Now that fee is much higher for sure, and you are advised not to waste your money by applying to a school that does not take many students that year or does not suit you.

The department I wanted to do my PhD in was a very specific department (industrial and organizational psychology - what organization? are you anarchic? do not open a job!) and at that time (as if talking about a hundred years ago, pimp), the number of universities in America that gave a doctorate in this field was 100 '. (70-80 of them also had scholarships) so my options were limited from the beginning. Most of these were schools in places like Kansas Redkit University, Oklahoma Çayırtepe University, Red Dead Redemption University. I had an excel file where I kept a list of these schools, and in that file, there were many details such as which school is in which city, how many students a year, how many scholarships they gave, which teachers did research on which subjects, how many points entered the school on average. It took me a long time to complete this excel file, so if you want to do this seriously, you will need to spend a lot of time.
There is no limit to the number of schools you can apply to and you can apply to 100 schools if you want, but it will take time to prepare a separate package for each school and it is good to limit applications to 10-15 schools as the application fees will be out of your pocket. You should not bother the professors who wrote reference letters to you anyway (can you write 100 reference letters and mail them to 100 different addresses?).
In fact, we first identify 20 schools and enter the website of these schools' doctoral programs.
On this site, you can get more or less information such as which teacher has researched on which subject, the latest articles he published, which subjects he searched for students, whether he has a bald head, whether he has almond eyes. but sometimes, especially the elderly teachers who have been in the academy for years have not updated their pages for 20 years, and you may come across a site full of geocities animations from 1999. According to my observations, most teachers renew their sites at least every 2-3 years. While you can find quite a bit of detailed information on some of the teachers' websites, you cannot find much information on others. There are about 10-12 schools left here until you qualify. If the site of the professors is not up-to-date, you can search google scholar to find their latest articles and see what they are doing research.


Now it is not enough to choose a school, it is also necessary to choose a teacher
In other words, while applying to the University of Oregon, you are expected to write in your application letter "I want to work with bruno sammartino from your professors because the topics he researched are in my interests" (by the way, bruno sammartino is a famous American wrestler from the 70s but his place is different). There is something I can recommend for that as well. Before applying to any school, determine which teacher you want to work with from that school and send an e-mail to that teacher. This can be a very simple e-mail and by introducing yourself in the e-mail, saying "my name is xyz, I am currently studying at university and I am currently doing research on this subject with a professor, I saw your page and it attracted my attention" and a few questions about his research Ask and show your interest.

This will help you a lot, because months later, while evaluating the applications, the teacher who saw your application will say "I remember this name, he sent me an e-mail, he is a young person who is very interested". It may or may not be beneficial if your name is familiar to the teacher, but it will certainly not hurt.

I remember when I was studying at university, I started working as an assistant with 2 different teachers. one was at my school, the other was at a school 2 hours away from me. I was going to him by train once a week and doing his duties. This actually seemed like therapy to me because I had the opportunity to study while watching the scenery on the generally empty and quiet train. I'm just saying that you don't make a mistake I made in my third year, I was already taking an above-normal course load like 6 lessons in total, but I piled all of the lessons on Tuesday and Thursday. my purpose in doing this was to go to classes 2 days a week and to deal with other things 5 ​​days (research, entertainment, rest, traveling, dusting) but I can say that I was quite worn out that year. Even though my 5 days a week were quiet, I was going to classes from 7 am to 9 pm on Tuesdays and Thursdays, and I was turning into a zombie especially in the last lessons.
It would not be wrong to say that, technically, the preparations for admission to the doctorate start from the first year, since the GPA you get in the undergraduate is very important during the admission to the doctorate. Most students do not pay much attention to the grades in the first 2 years since they decide to do a PhD in the 2nd or 3rd year, but it is necessary to be very careful about this issue. Also, there are some things about GPA that vary from doctorate program to doctorate program. some doctoral programs look at your general average, some doctoral programs only look at the average of the last 2 years, some programs only look at the average of the courses related to your department (not counting the grades you get in elective courses), some only look at your average in numerical courses and some look at the average of specific courses they determined ( statistics, philosophy of science ... etc). You may need to call or send an e-mail to find out which program is looking at which average.

They also check at which school you got your average for some doctoral programs. For example, the 3.0 average you get from Stanford can be worth more than the average 3.7 you get from the oregon dairy pastor university. It is said that it is an advantage to get undergraduate education in this regard from the USA but I could not confirm whether this is true. In the meantime, the average for the fourth year is not taken into consideration, as you apply at the end of your 3rd year (or at the beginning of the 4th year). you already receive your acceptance or rejection letter in the half of the fourth year. However, this does not mean that you can release in the fourth year because if you do not get accepted that year, when you apply again the next year, they will also look at the average of that year.

let's come to reference letters

You need to choose 3 professors who know you well and can be a reference to the work you do, and they should send their letters to the school you applied to in a sealed envelope without giving you any. Time is very important in this regard because most of the teachers are extremely busy at the application time. You have to give at least 6-7 weeks to write and send letters to teachers. If you do not plan it well, you are likely to miss the application deadline and stay next year, and most students are burning because they do not pay attention to this issue. Therefore, I say that you can determine the teachers you want to write a reference letter, negotiate and do not leave it to chance.

let's come to gre exam now

This is a very interesting test. if the system may have changed after I entered, but let me write my own experience. Greetings are held in major examination centers and you can take the exam at your leisure by making an appointment in advance. The exam is on the computer and a system called "computer adaptive system" is used. In this system, the questions belong to different difficulties and different scores. The machine asks you one math question, if you know it right the next question is a harder but higher-scored one. If you know that too, an even more difficult question comes up with an even higher score. If you answer incorrectly, the next question is easier, but with less points.

only then it is very normal to panic. You suddenly realize that the questions are getting harder and harder, but suddenly when the questions start to get easier, you say, "I just answered the last question wrong". At the end of the exam, you find out your score instantly and the exam asks whether you accept this score. Let's say you were sick that day, your head was awkward and you think you were performing below your normal performance. then you may not accept the score and retake the exam, but there is a fee of around $ 150 per entry and this is not recommended as you have to pay it over and over again.

As for the content of the exam, it consists of classical gre english and mathematics. The math part is pretty simple actually. There aren't many questions at the high school level other than the entry level to algebra and statistics. It's not a trigonometry, derivative, integral or something. The questions are more like iq questions in style and look at whether you grasp certain concepts. Although I was an oral speaker at the university, I got 750 out of 800 in the mathematics part of this exam. or read any of the Anatolian high school science high schools in Turkey and over 700 already gets easily.

the english part is a bit complicated

Even native Americans have difficulties in English because there are often difficult words that are not used in daily life and you can see in Shakespeare's books or old novels. I knew about it before, and while I was preparing for the exam, I had taken hundreds of sheets of paper, divided them into dozens of pieces, and created 2 thousand note cards for myself. I found a list of "2000 most frequent words in gre" from somewhere and put one of those words, their meaning and an example sentence on each of these cards. Whenever I was out of the house, I would take 20-30 cards with me, I was memorizing cards even on the bus, train, parties. Despite all the preparations, I was able to get 600 out of 800. Although native English speakers were getting an average of 500-550 and I got one click above them.

There is also a paragraph part in the exam and they write you "essay" on any subject and then the computer gives points to the essay that you wrote. While schools are generally accepted to the doctorate, they do not care about the score you get in this section. If I remember correctly, I got 600 here too, but the note given by the machine cannot be trusted.

Apart from this, there are specific grays related to the area.

Some schools' doctoral programs may also ask you to enter these grades (physics gre, psychology gre, chemistry, etc.). these are rare but you have to plan ahead. However, if only 1 out of 10-12 schools that you are planning to apply requires, it seems more logical to remove that school from the list instead of paying for it in vain. And sometimes people with a relatively low GPA voluntarily enter these specific grades and get high scores and use it to compensate for their GPA. some schools accept this while others do not, and it is worth confirming this before incurring costs in vain.

Not that, but the article went on like an animal, and we haven't even started a doctorate, it's a think. When writing a letter of intent, be sure to get help somewhere. I wrote my letter of intent at first and took it to my teacher who was my advisor at the time. The woman took a red pen and started to draw from right to left. The second time, 60% of the writing had changed, and the third time it had changed quite a bit again. There was not the slightest resemblance between the version I sent and the original version of the article, but at the end it was a letter that felt comfortable.

Then you go to the university you are studying and give the list of the schools you applied to and they send your transcripts for you. Thus, they look at details such as which courses you took in the school you applied to, what grade was your grade from, whether you swelled your average with religion and physical lessons or if you took science and statistics lessons. some doctoral programs even have specific course requirements. For example, if you are applying to the physics department of a licensed university, they may require that you have taken certain physics courses, and if you have not taken some of those courses, they may automatically eliminate them. sometimes the courses they want you to take are not even available at your school and you have to take them from another school. sometimes they accept you to the doctorate as "conditional", but within 1 year after you are accepted, you are required to complete your course deficiencies in your new school.

anyway, you sent everything and you start to wait

After a few weeks, a letter comes to your home and they say "we have received your application package, everything in the package is ok". sometimes they send a list of missing items saying "we have received your package but these documents are missing". At that time, if the application deadline has passed, they give you additional time to complete the missing items.

After that, the waiting process begins again. While you are waiting, the committee, which will decide whether or not to admit you at the school you applied to, gathers on a Saturday morning and all the application packages are opened and stacked on a table. Throughout the day, committee members give each content out of 5 in your application package. Finally, the points are collected and a list is made from the best to the worst among the applicants. If the quota for that year is 6 people, the first 6 people receive an acceptance letter and the next 6-10 people receive a letter "You are on our reserve list". the rest receive a letter of rejection.

When they put you on the reserve list, they do not tell you which place you are in, and you are waiting for months with curiosity. If you're first on the list, your turn will come as soon as someone rejects them, but if you're in 5th place, it can be difficult for you to get your turn. Also, since they usually receive more than one acceptance letter, they wait until the last minute to choose between the places where they are accepted. In this case, those on the reserve list have to wait until the last minute. sometimes, at the last minute, extra allowance is made to the school and they decide to accept 1-2 more people and reach the ones on the reserve list.

As you continue your last year at university, your acceptance letter or letters are coming like February-March.

After that, you have an interesting psychology until the university ends like May-June. On the one hand, you let go of acceptance to the doctorate anyway, on the other hand, you panic by saying "if I cannot graduate, the admission to the doctorate will also burn". I had released quite a few lately and gave it to the party, but since the episode was verbal anyway, it didn't scratch much. my lowest GPA in my university life was my recent average. As Fenerbahçe played quarter-finals in the Champions League that year, there was also a lot of enthusiasm, luckily Boral and so on.

i studied university in california and i was going to michigan for my doctorate. These two states can be said to be irrelevant in every sense. The weather in california is generally hot and sunny, michigan has the same climate as canada, and the temperature drops to -30s in winter. Even rain rarely rains in California, while in Michigan it is almost completely snowy from November to March. Moreover, I was living in a very cosmopolitan place in the middle of the silicon valley in california, but in michigan I moved to a forested university town with no flying birds. Let alone the cosmopolitan structure here, 80% consisted of people who had never even gone outside of Michigan. It had been 5 years since I came to America and it was the first time I was experiencing culture shock.

Normally school would start in August, but I moved in May as soon as I graduated and I spent the summer vacation trying to get used to the area. I also didn't have a car and driver's license yet. I found a cheap second-hand car, started exercising at 5 am on the empty roads, and I was trying to teach myself to drive.

Anyway, summer passed and school would begin. Since doctoral programs usually have scholarships, you do not pay the school fee, on the contrary, the school pays you. sometimes you attend classes, sometimes you take part in research and you get a small salary in return. I had a monthly salary of around 1200 dollars. I was staying in the school's housing for 550 dollars a month, and this rent included everything (electricity, water, internet, heating). especially heating was very important because as I said above michigan had ass-freezing cold. The house I lived alone was 50 years old and the heating system of the house was like the air conditioner from the Second World War that he brought home in an episode of "married with children" by al bundy. When I switched on the heating, there was a terrific humming sound as if I was in an airplane, and while I was sleeping at night, I chose between noise and warmth and preferred silence. Fortunately, the house insulation was very good.

As for the remaining costs

food and beverages cost $ 300-400. Since I lived and worked on campus, there was no gas cost and because I was young, there was no health insurance. Health insurance was not compulsory at that time as it was not obamacare yet. If it were now, 200-300 dollars from that budget would go to health insurance and I guess my budget was not enough.

no salary was given during summer vacation. That's why you were getting a salary for 9 months a year. Also, the scholarship included 9 credits per semester. If you want to take extra classes to finish school early or if you want to take summer classes, you had to pay from your pocket.

When you start your PhD, you choose the first semester master's thesis topic and you start working on your thesis from the second semester. To become a PhD, you must first remove the master. Even if you had a master's degree before, the school often re-masters and there is not much shortening in this period. You attend classes every now and then, and you have a busy schedule. You know, when people finish high school and start university, when they encounter a completely different culture, they turn to fish out of the water (for example, those who ask permission from the professor to go to the toilet in the first year of the university), and a similar culture shock happens when they start their doctorate. Also, because your class is very small (5-6 students), your project load is also heavy during the lessons.

It is generally preferred that you have printed at least 2-3 articles while doing your doctorate. this is especially important if you are going to be an academic. My department was a very specific department, and since it was more relevant to the private sector than academia, I started consulting companies instead of publishing articles. Leading companies in michigan are always car companies (ford, jeep, general motors) and there was also dow chemical, the largest chemical company in america. Although I did not have internship opportunities in these companies, there were projects that I worked together and consulted and this was useful in the future. Nevertheless, 95% of PhD students should concentrate on the academic part of the work and print an article.

Just as I was doing my doctorate, America's biggest economic crisis since World War II broke out and American car companies were on the brink of bankruptcy. Chrysler, the owner of general motors and jeep, declared bankruptcy and then came back with government support, while Ford survived with government loans, but unemployment in michigan jumped from 4% to 12-13%. The budget of the school was cut and it was said that only 3 new students will be admitted next year.

After the master's thesis, you take some more courses and then you take the qualifying exam. In this exam, everything you have learned in all the lessons you have taken up to that day is tested. I remember working like it all summer before the test and reading everything over and over again. You know, there is a stereotype saying "we forget 95% of the things we learn in class within 24 hours", I also saw that it was true. I remembered how much of what I had learned every time I opened my old books.

After passing the qualifying exam, you complete the remaining courses and enter the status of "us".

that means "all this dissertation". In other words, everything is ok except for the doctoral thesis and your graduation is up to the doctoral thesis. Now, after reaching this level, you can apply for jobs that require a doctorate and complete your doctoral thesis while working. At that time, I loved michigan's natural beauties, forests, lakes, etc., but gina came from the harsh winter seasons. That's why I was trying to find a job and get rid of it as soon as possible. otherwise it was 2010 and the American economy had just gotten out of the crisis and there was not much work yet. I remember applying for over 300 jobs over 6 months to find my first job. I even had an excel file that lists the jobs I applied for and the results. I moved to American citizenship in 2008, but work on it until you've gotten a great sense of pessimism that slowly I began to think about returning to Turkey.

I found my first job when I lost my hopes, but that is the subject of another article. The subject of this article was doctoral education and I must return to the topic. If your doctor's department is verbal, you will read a lot. Reading an average of 100 pages per day, 500 pages per week will now be part of your routine. You will be constantly working on something without saying weekdays or weekends. For example, you will be grading the exam papers of the courses you attended. Once you get used to this tempo, it tests you inside after a while. After completing the doctorate and starting business life, people start to feel guilty when they are sitting idly on weekends. If there are two things that a doctorate gives to people, one is the ability to think critically, and the other is work discipline, anxiety about filling leisure time. As you know, when you sit idle at home, you say, "Don't let me read a book or watch a documentary, don't waste time."

By the way, one of the things that surprised me was how respectful American students were.

When I started lecturing to all white American young people in the village of Michigan, I was afraid that they would exclude me, disrespect me, put words or something, because I was a foreigner, but none of my fears happened. my students have never made the slightest mistake in respect. Although I usually attended other people's lectures instead of my own lectures as a guest lecturer, but still the students were very respectful. but this was an exception. While a classmate of mine from India was lecturing, one of the students said, "You don't understand what you are saying from her accent," and the girl left the class crying. however, it was rumored that after the incident, the rest of the class told the boy his limits and the boy was transferred to another school.

I actually started to shake my doctorate thesis after I got a job and maybe I couldn't finish it, but thanks to my advisor, I finished my thesis somehow because he sent e-mails every week to ask "how is the thesis going", "is there any improvement", "do you need help". Then I rented a car on a summer day, went to michigan from texas to defend my thesis and then returned home. Now I'm glad I did, because the diploma I received had a lot of material and spiritual contribution to me.

So what happens after the doctor is done?

those who want to go to academia and start a job at a university. I said above, those who have their undergraduate and doctorate degrees at the same university are very rare. likewise, it is very rare for those who stay at the same school after completing their doctorate. After completing the doctorate, you are expected to go to another school and transfer what you have learned to the information there. In departments such as physics and chemistry where academic competition is high, you need to do a post-doc before finding permanent jobs in academia, but like my department, it has been the dog of capitalism that serves more private companies (god damn it, except for oregon) because there is less competition in the departments. is not happening.

If your department is a specific department such as clinical psychology, you need to get an internship and then a license in your state. By the way, in the United States, a person must have at least a doctorate to describe himself as a "psychologist". That is, it is legally prohibited to introduce yourself as a psychologist even if you have studied psychology in a bachelor's or master's degree (this is true in all 50 states).

By the way, I said that it comes as a master-doctorate package in American doctoral programs in general. Some students may be burdened with a doctorate, and at the end of the second year, they get their master's diploma and leave the program. These people usually find jobs in the private sector and continue their lives, and this is definitely not the end of the world. In other words, there is no obligation to finish because you have started the doctorate. If you came from outside with a student visa and you want to get sponsorship from companies and enter business life in America, the advantage of a doctorate is definitely great because it is easier for someone with a PhD working in R&D to sponsor the company for h-1.

Let's say you regret halfway through reading a chapter and decide to read another chapter. In this case, you have to start the doctorate from scratch and go through all the application stages again. If you have taken the gre exam in the last 2 years, you do not need to take it again. Also, there may be exceptions to this if you want to switch to a different sub-branch of the same branch at the same school (to move from social psychology at oregon university to experimental psychology at the university of oregon).

The annual fee you will receive in almost all departments will not fully cover your costs. In the example I gave above, it seems to have covered my monthly expenses, but this was because I stayed in the school housing and I was extremely frugal. my American friends had always rented houses outside of the campus and almost all of them had taken student loans. moreover, we lived in a small town in a relatively cheap state like michigan. If you are doing a doctorate in places such as new york, san francisco, los angeles, the salary you receive from school will definitely not be enough, but it is possible to cover the difference either by loans, by additional scholarships or by working 5-10 hours a week. When I was a student, because my income was low, I was refunding all income taxes deducted from my salary at the end of the year.

I used to use the internet of the school while staying in the residence of the school and one day a letter came to the house saying that I downloaded a pirated movie and said, "If you do it again, we will cut off the internet". I scrambled and started not downloading pirates since then. there was already netflix.

This should be taken into account as health insurance became compulsory after obamacare.

One more detail came to mind

When I first came to michigan people were saying "well, this is a place suitable for a full PhD study". I said "why?" I was asking. They said, "Since you will be buried under the snow for months in winter, you will not be able to leave the house and you will have a lot of time to study." they were indeed right. lonely men are used to snow. 30-40 centimeters of snow was falling, life was continuing quite normally. If 2 centimeters of snow fall in Texas or Oregon, where I live later, life becomes paralyzed. It will be useful to choose such quiet places where you can stay by yourself for a long time, but do not isolate yourself too much from other people.

Before finishing the article, let me answer one more question that is frequently asked to me: what if the school accepts the doctorate but cannot arrange a scholarship assistant? In fact, it is limited to scholarship assistantships that schools can set a PhD student quota for that year. In other words, if the school can arrange 6 assistantships that year, it takes 6 students. Apart from private schools, schools do not accept students for which they do not grant scholarships.

There is also something called psyd in psychology other than phd, people ask what it is. I say don't get into it. psyd is a degree that is usually given by private schools through paid education, without academic research, but with intensive classes and practices. With this degree you can become a therapist or work in companies, but you cannot pursue an academic career. The problem with this degree is that it creates the perception that people have "printed the money and got a doctor" and is not taken seriously in some environments. Therefore, people with this degree may find it difficult to find a job if they do not start their own business. And it costs $ 100-150,000 to get an average psyd rating, and Americans are getting into quite a lot of debt to do that. However, you can finish phd with scholarship almost without a loan.

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