The Secret of the Mongolians' Success, Establishing One of the World's Largest Empires

Let's take a look at the underlying reasons for the success of the Mongols, who were able to break through the bosom of Central Asia and build one of the largest empires in the world.
mobility primarily
The horses used by the Mongols are quite light, perhaps the lightest witnessed throughout history. horseback archers also regularly hold 4 or 5 horses; so they have a chance to train without the capacity of horses during the day. A standard Mongolian unit has the capability to cover about 96 kilometers a day. Scouts, specially trained for this job, were able to exceed 320 kilometers a day. It is said that even the messengers of the mongols ate their meals on the horse (they have prevented the loss of time caused by drinking water by sticking a stick on the horse's back and drinking the blood of the horse), and the highest level horses were given to them in every Mongolian settlement they passed.
horses
The horses used by the Mongols are quite small and light compared to those used by their competitors. these little horses are not disadvantageous in terms of speed. It has features such as grazing with all kinds of grass that other horses cannot graze. this feature provides the Mongolians with the ability to move with large amounts of equestrian troops without carrying any load of horse feed. there is almost no land in which horses cannot survive.

A recent academic publication implies that a small-scale climate change in the 13th century contributed to the success of Mongolian horsemen. The drought that appeared before the rise of Genghis Khan increased the amount of precipitation in the later stages and caused mild climates to be experienced. precipitation, the emergence of pastures that can feed the Mongolian horses; in a way, it means that Mongolian horses can go a very long distance. Another view is that this drought will lead to political turbulence that will help Genghis Khan take power later.
Warriors
Linking the success of the mongols to horses would be unfair to the warriors commanding those horses. It would not be a lie to say that mongolian warriors are growing on horses. Since they are a nomadic tribe, they have to learn how to ride a horse from a very early age, the Mongols. Like their horses, they were able to live on almost any piece of land. not to add that they are agile enough to do acrobatic movements on a horse. The fact that the warriors used leather armor rather than steel armor rather than steel (there were also times when they used steel to provide extra protection in the shock attacks in the early wars) added extra mobility and agility to them.
springs
The bows used by the Mongolian warriors were also very specific bows. The springs made of a composite material made of bone, wood and tendon had a great range and piercing power despite their small size. The small size of the springs allowed the Mongolian warriors to shoot from almost any angle on the horse. Considering the difficulty of shooting on a horse with 1.8 meters of British springs (the reason William gave it to the hands of his opponents in the battle of hasting), it is not surprising that the Mongols have superiority over their opponents in the field battles. The Mongolians were not an army that could dare to stand in the face of their springs with a range of 120 meters. with these agility and strong bows, they quickly circled around the enemy and put the enemy in the rain of arrows. they would choose the battlefields to take advantage of these advantages; they would not go to the battlefield battle where they could not take advantage of these advantages. In cases where the suitable area could not be found and the war was nearing the inevitable end, they would try to escape from their opponents until they found the appropriate area. when they found the right space, they would stop running and eliminate their rivals with standard tactics.


to implement what they can learn in the places they have captured within themselves
most of the consultants of kubilay khan consist of non-mongolian nations, including the Chinese and the harzemshahli in the design of the catapults that will be used in city sieges, etc.

Mongols took care to destroy the loyalty originating from the tribe. Where they conquered, they would place the warriors who joined their armies and tended to rebel in troops with foreigners. discipline was also an uncompromising phenomenon, and even the slightest crime brought the death penalty was quite common among the mongols.

there is no doubt that the Mongols; they could never conquer the world without their mobility, discipline, loyalty and hardness.

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