Is Life Possible Around Black Holes?

We are accustomed to looking for possible life in the water worlds that revolve around stars like our sun, but with a recent study, another possible life environment has been found: A rocky planet orbiting beyond the event horizon of a rapidly spinning supermassive black hole.

Strange forces around the black hole can best heat this planet, but this scenario turns out to be a deception: this planet must orbit almost light speed in orbit!
Living environment for humanity
We do not know all the possible places in our universe where life can arise, because so far we have only one example in which life has emerged. Despite the fact that scientists and science fiction writers enjoy thinking about all the strange layouts and possibilities that life forms may exist, the best estimate we can make based on all our serious extraterrestrial life research studies and modeling our own situation is that the life we ​​can find cannot be much different than on Earth.

Based on this situation, we can say that there are two very big requirements. First, a life like us needs water. Water consists of the most common molecules in the universe; hydrogen (the number one element by the amount of abundance in the universe) and oxygen (a byproduct that is abundant due to the fusion reactions occurring in the stars like our sun). However, this water is usually found either evaporated in plasma or solid and frozen as ice, both of which are bad conditions for life.
It is very difficult to come across liquid water. Because the environment in which this water will be located must be at a temperature that will prevent the water from evaporating. There are two locations where we can detect this perfect balance; a habitable zone, where one receives heat to support the water remaining on the surface of a planet orbiting the star to remain liquid, neither is entirely cold enough to hold ice, nor is it hot enough to evaporate completely; the other is below the ice cracks in some satellites of the outer planets of our Solar system, where the tidal heat produces the necessary energy.

However, only pure temperature is not enough. Life; it is a complex process that uses energy to do things like getting around, eating, and breeding. Since all these processes are not perfectly effective, they also generate heat. And this now requires the heat to be disposed of safely from the environment, or greenhouse gas scenarios may arise that will increase the temperatures that will kill the life that started.

In the Earth, we are now throwing heat into the void of space in the form of infrared radiation. This contrast between an energy source and where we will put all the waste will likely allow life to develop on another planet with a similar order, just like on our planet.

Hot Monsters
Black holes, as their names suggest, are dark because they do not emit light around them. However, very strong gravitation also makes them unique in the universe.
At first glance, black holes seem to be the least favorable places for any form of life. After all, black holes are objects that consist of pure gravity and are very close to event horizons, and they are objects that separate them from the universe forever. Even light cannot escape their gravity.

One way we can understand the universe is by cosmic microwave background radiation. This glow is the radiation that the universe left behind when it was just a baby, about 380,000 years old, and it is the biggest radiation source of the whole universe. The reason we cannot see this radiation is because the electromagnetic spectrum is in the microwave zone. This cosmic microwave backlight has a temperature of about 3 degrees above absolute zero.
However, the cosmic microwave background radiation shifts to blue as it collides with larger energies from extreme gravity as it falls into the black hole. Before hitting the event horizon, the cosmic microwave background radiation can gain so much energy; Infrared of the spectrum can be seen and even slide to the ultraviolet part. In other words, the cosmic microwave background radiation near the black hole ceases to be cold or even gets too hot. Moreover, if the black hole is spinning, this black hole can focus the beam and make the cosmic microwave background radiation shine like a Sun in the sky.

Goldilocks in Black Hole (Habitablezone - Livable Area)
So if you can get close enough to a black hole, you might find yourself surprisingly overheated, and if you are on a planet, perhaps the water you have might have turned into liquid water oceans, which means a possible home for life.

However, a cooler is needed to sprinkle life, which can easily be achieved by a black hole. The gravitational distortion when near the black hole further expands the appearance of the event horizon, making it more bulging than you might think.

When it is close enough to the black hole (for example, at a radius of less than 1% of the event horizon), the hot cosmic microwave background radiation shrinks to fill a small disk while the event horizon swells to cover 40% of the sky. Meanwhile, if your planet is spinning, then you have day and night and life will have everything necessary to do its job.

But an orbit in this radius is often overly variable, but it tends to throw itself into that terrible darkness. A group of researchers who have been investigating this scenario recently to see if there is a way to keep this situation in balance has been published in "The Astrophsical Journal".

And they found a way that would work. If a black hole is 1.6 × 108 times the mass of the Sun and rotates rapidly, it can host a "habitable zone" in the cosmic microwave background radiation that is slightly above the event horizon, peaking in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum and not terribly hot. If it is closer, the planet is destroyed by excessive gravitational force, if it is farther away, the cosmic microwave background radiation cools. But what happens in this narrow belt? According to the researchers; would be in full decision.

Although this scenario is possible, it is not very pleasant. Because the planet that is in this orbit has to move with almost the speed of light and experience the time expansion factor, every second in this world means clocks for us. Also, who knows if a planet will get closer to a black hole while still alive?

Nevertheless, this research shows that when we are looking for a suitable place for life, we need to keep our minds open and think that even the scariest places in the universe may have potential.
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