If the sun suddenly disappeared ?

First of all, since the Sun suddenly disappears, the gravitational effect that will cause the Earth to rotate will disappear, since our circular orbit the Sun disappears, we will continue our movement in that direction. In other words, our world will begin to travel in a straight direction with thousands of km in the galaxy. As our direction and speed do not change, there will be no skidding or destruction.
Do not worry; we are very unlikely to hit any celestial body or other star while traveling. It should be noted here that we think that the gravitational effect spreads with the speed of light, the highest speed in the universe. This means that; When the sun suddenly disappears, it will take about 8 minutes for the gravitational effect on us to disappear. Afterwards, we will begin to travel deep into the galaxy in a straight direction within the scenario we mentioned above.
Our understanding that the Sun is gone will only be possible in 8 minutes, since its light can reach us in about 8 minutes. The sky will suddenly darken for those on the daytime side of the Earth. Those on the night side will see that the Moon suddenly disappears. Because the Moon reflects the sunlight to us. When the sun disappears, it will disappear because it cannot reflect a light.

Even if the sun goes and suddenly gets dark, the sky will not be filled with stars in our cities. Because our electricity network is still working and street lights cause light pollution in our cities.

If planets like Jupiter and Saturn are visible in the sky at this time, we continue to see them, because the travel time of the light that reaches us from these planets is quite large. However, after about 50 minutes, Jupiter will become invisible in the sky after 80 minutes.
Our world will begin to cool slowly, as it becomes deprived of light and heat. But this will not happen so suddenly. We will slowly feel the temperature decreasing day by day. However, plants that depend on sunlight in order to survive will become unable to photosynthesize.

In about 1 week and 10 days, all green plants on earth will die and disappear. Fungi will continue their lives for a while since they do not need photosynthesis and the earth has not yet frozen.
Of course, we will also take urgent measures. Officials who see the sun disappear will start building sheltered cities in places such as Iceland, where hot geothermal waters abound. These geothermal cities, which can produce their own electricity and provide their heat, will be temporary but sufficient for people to live for many years. However, most of humanity will not have a chance to live in these structures due to lack of space and resources. Most of us will die within a few months of cold, thirst and hunger after what we have is exhausted.

Meanwhile, the earth will continue to cool slowly. After about a year, the surface temperature will drop to around -100 degrees Celsius. At this temperature, all the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will freeze and our atmosphere will not allow plant life in its pure form. In other words, people living in geothermal cities will also have to produce carbon dioxide to grow food plants.

Since the algae that depend on sunlight die, the food chain of the oceans will be interrupted. Living things that feed on algae will die. Other small creatures that feed on these creatures will also die. As the fish that feed on those little creatures die, larger fish will also be extinct. In summary, all living creatures up to the first 1 km depth of the oceans will be destroyed.
There will be nothing more than a few single-celled bacteria that can survive in difficult conditions. Until the end of the first year, seas and oceans will begin to ice because of the falling temperature. A layer of ice hundreds of meters thick, which gets thicker day by day, will cover all oceans.

It will not matter much for the creatures living around the geothermal chimneys in the ocean. Since they are not dependent on sunlight anyway, they will continue their lives playing here. Geothermal chimneys will always exist and the living areas will not be damaged as the core of the world will continue to remain hot for billions of years. A few years later, the ice thickness will rise above 1 km. However, the deep regions of the oceans will always remain liquid. After a while, ocean life will be limited only to the surroundings of geothermal hot water chimneys.

In 10 years, the temperature of the Earth will decrease to -250 degrees Celsius. At this temperature, nitrogen and oxygen, which make up almost the entire atmosphere, will freeze and snow on the earth. So our atmosphere will disappear.
The world is now kilometers long; nitrogen at the top and an ice-covered sphere beneath it.
Meanwhile, as all the lands are covered with ice, the oceans are too frozen to reach people, and the lakes and rivers will be destroyed, lucky people trying to survive in sheltered structures around geothermal resources will realize that they need to engage in larger projects.

As a result of this awareness, they will build cities consisting of tunnel networks at a depth of hundreds of thousands of meters in order to benefit from the increasing temperature towards the depths of the earth.

By providing their energy from the hot magma deep in the earth's crust, they will be able to live their lives in these tunnel cities for thousands or even millions of years. Thanks to the heat of magma, they will be able to generate their electricity, enlighten, produce air to breathe, and grow plants and animals. After a while, this life will become normal for people in tunnel cities. Maybe even generations later, even we live on the surface of the Earth will be forgotten.
Humanity, if it can succeed; It can survive millions, perhaps billions of years in underground cities. However, it is not easy to achieve this.
If humanity can advance in the field of space technology in the thousands and millions of years underground, perhaps one day they will be able to return to their normal lives as they are today by "moving" to a planet with a favorable conditions around a star that the Earth passes by.

As you may have noticed, the disappearance of the Sun does not mean the disappearance of humanity and life. Although we will have a hard time, there are chances that our lucky ones will survive. Of course, living creatures living in the geothermal chimneys of the oceans will continue their lives without realizing anything. Life is good for them…
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