Huge project dedicated to researching human DNA: Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project or Human Genome Project in Turkish is a huge science project that lasted 13 years in total.
The human genome project has lasted 13 years and has led to the sequencing (sequence) of 3 billion base pairs in a haploid human genome with 99.9% accuracy (i.e. 1 base error margin on 10,000 basis) and is a budget of approximately $ 3 billion.

the target of the project
The sequence of genes that are the basic unit of heredity and the sequence of genes that reveal the DNA sequence (ie the order of the bases of adenine (a), thymine (t), guanine (g), and cytosine (c)) of the genetic material carried on all human chromosomes. It was to determine. For this, DNA samples were taken from many volunteers. Anonymization method has been used considering the ethical problems that may arise. so no one knows who owns the sequenced genome, including volunteers and project executives today.

emergence of the project
The foundations of the project were signed in 1985 by the molecular biologist Robert Sinsheimer, after the first discussion of the sequencability of the human genome, in 1988, the United States' national institutes of health and the energy ministry signed for the purpose of organizing research and technical activities related to the human genome. was thrown in the agreement. the next year, the national center for human genome research (igaum) was established to run, coordinate and support the project.

The first president of igaum was james d watson. francis collins came to power after watson managed the project for 4 years.

Contrary to popular belief, this was not just a project run by the United States. It was an international project contributed by 20 different centers from 6 countries including China, France, Germany, Britain and Japan along with the USA.
the end of the project and its results
The project started in 1990 and ended in 2003, on the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the dna helix, 2 years before it was calculated in the first place. One of the most important reasons for the early completion of the project is the controversy that emerged when Craig Venter, who set up a biotechnology company named Celera, separated from igp and started to sort out the human genome, after the brilliant ideas about sequencing were criticized by francis collins at the beginning of the project. Finally, both groups published the results of their work in nature and science journals simultaneously.

The human genome whose sequence was revealed as a result of the project was prevented from being patented by a particular person or organization (see bermuda agreement) and was opened to the public from a website called genbank. Anyone who wants today can access this series here.

The number of genes thought to be around 100,000 in the human genome first decreased to 40,000 in the 13 years that the project was going on, and it was determined that it was between 20,000-25,000 at the end of the project.

It is not true that igp is an exaggerated project. This is a study that will still be useful even if all the genes whose findings are still in use and my guess is not working today. for only 2% of the human genome is made up of genes, and the function of the rest is still largely enigmatic. Of course, the series will have a great contribution in solving this enigma. moreover, when we consider only the coded part (ie genes), it is almost a success to find the whole genome in 13 years, considering that it takes years to find a single gene related to a disease and sequencing it before the genome sequence. Considering that the genetic bases of many diseases are not limited to a single gene and, on the contrary, much more complex, it is practically impossible to go to the genetic basis of these diseases without genome sequences.

Another model of organism genomes (next item) and developing dna sequencing technologies (next generation sequencing) sequenced after this project or on the occasion of it are also important extensions of this project. The usage area of ​​the human genome sequence we have today is quite wide. (see molecular biology) (see medicine) (see gene therapy) (see pharmacogenomiology) (see population genetics) (see forensic medicine) (see evolution)

Within the scope of the project, besides the human genome, escherichia coli, saccharomyces cerevisiae, caenorhabditis elegans, mus musculus genomes are also sequenced. In the same period, the group headed by craig venter sequenced haemophilus influenza and drosophila melanogaster genomes, and the group headed by his wife sequenced the mycoplasma genitalium genome.

Elsi (ethical, legal, and social issues) was established in order to prepare trainings to introduce the project to humanity, to address ethical and political issues (see genetic discrimination) that may arise on the subject, and to develop medical and public policies.

In fact, it is possible to find what I have counted so far from almost every source on the subject. When this is the case, I am starting to ask what you will tell us, what did you sit down and write this entry, efenim.
Comment: What is this seriously called igp now?
wouldn't they ask why a sequencing genome sequencing, since gene sequencing technology has been developed years ago, is this sequencing job that lasted as long as 13 years? they ask, personally when I was asking when I was an unbending undergraduate student. And yet it was not easy to get my answer, because biologists often forget to explain the big picture rather than dive into the work, so the students of the biological molecular biology at the beginning of the road are missing.

The main reason why igp takes so long is that the human genome is very seriously long. As I mentioned above, it is a haploid human genome with a length of 3 billion base pairs. However, considering that the enzyme used in sequencing can add 10 bases per second, we expect a small calculation to sequence the entire genome in a period of 83.3 hours. whereas we are talking about 13 years. because why? because the DNA cannot open like a zipper and cannot be sequenced in a move. because a molecule of this size is not stable in vitro. [The 3 billion base human genome is not a single large molecule, but 23 (haploid) chromosomes. (though this would have facilitated our work, then the sequencing would take as long as the sequencing of the longest chromosome.)] however, due to the technical limitation I have listed above, the longest segment of dna that could be sequenced at once within the scope of igp could be 2000 base lengths.

then what to do is certain; we will cut the genome into tiny pieces, remove the strings one by one and then merge them. but since everything happens in the test tube where nothing is visible when cutting the dna, it is possible to know which of the sequences we have sequenced one by one before the other. To overcome this, igaum and celera used two different methods. I can try to summarize these two methods by means of two animated animations, as it is difficult to explain in plain text or to understand.
igaum method
briefly here is the physical mapping of the genome with a resolution of 1 million bases (this is to show the locations of some known genes on the chromosome), then the genome is divided into parts that overlap each other, these parts are lined up according to the physical map, some of them are selected and divided into smaller pieces and each piece is individually. one by one. Considering the physical mapping, the genome is marked at a certain frequency, that is, a sign has been placed in the passed places, these signs later became the guide during the sequencing and the surrounding sequences were determined. it is a very cautious but slow method. (At this point, I would like to open a parenthesis and note that there are genes associated with many diseases, such as menkes syndrome, huntington's disease, and myotonic dystrophy, just beyond the sequencing of the genome.)

celera method
Here, more than one genome has been divided into segments without a mapping before, and these pieces have been combined with the help of overlapping sequences using very advanced computer software (bioinformatics). (shotgun method) The craig venter group also benefited from the partial human genome sequence that has already been opened to the public with this project. its biggest advantage is that it is very fast. In this method, like the other method, the same sequence was sequenced more than once to reduce the margin of error. (coverage) as a result, each base is sequenced approximately 9 times.
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