How was the month of Ramadan in the Ottoman Period?

In these days when we enter the month of Ramadan, let's go back to the past and witness how the month of Ramadan lived in the Ottoman period.
How was the month of Ramadan in the Ottoman Empire?
how would this month begin?
which traditions still continue?
What is tenbihnâme?
Where does the term eve flower come from?

Fasting in Ramadan, which is the 9th month of the Hijri calendar, is obligatory for all Muslims. This fast starts when the state declares that the month of Ramadan is coming.

For the proclamation of Ramadan, moral and some state officials (usually they would be the servants of the gentlemen) used to watch the crescent. the reason for this is hz. "Do not start the Ramadan fast unless you see the crescent, don't feast unless you see the crescent!" is the hadith sharif. In fact, this continued as a tradition in Ottoman, because astronomy and calendaring were well developed in Ottoman times. As Ramadan was approaching, a regulation called tenbihname was published by the state and sent to all provinces.

tenbihnâme, as the name implies, means a reminder. the state has declared the rules to be followed during the month of Ramadan, the activities to be carried out and the penalties to be imposed by those who do not obey the rules with these practices.
To give information about what is written in these tenbihnames
tradesmen are forbidden to raise products during the month of Ramadan,

The administrators were warned that the people living in their regions should be prepared not to have meat shortages,

The bakers came to the palace and brought samples from the bread they would make throughout Ramadan and made them taste the sultan. The sultan ordered the bakers to follow the recipes of the other bakers if there was bread he did not like.

Several mosques in each province will be allocated for women only.

Those who do not have an excuse from the moral are asked to perform the night prayer, especially in mosques.

It is reported whether anyone can eat in public places during the day, including non-Muslims.

While it is forbidden to pass in front of the sultan without greetings in normal time, it was reported that he was released during the month of Ramadan in the jurisprudence.

Those who are in front of his shop and his house will be punished.

Carrying swords, knives and wearing military clothes is strictly prohibited. (It should be a concern that fights can easily grow because the nation is irritable due to fasting.)

It is observed that two bakers who raise the bread in the month of Ramadan during the month of Ramadan were executed in the sherry registers held during the period of Fatih Sultan Mehmet and the fourth murat, and they were exhibited to the public for the worship at the door of their bakery.

The hand of a baker who made a raise in bread during the legal period and did not give bread to a widow at an old price was cut.

Of course, the drummers started to wake the moral by saying manias from the first sahur to the last night. but just like today, they had to get documents to practice drumming. For this, the candidate drummer had to be approved by the cadet, dizdar, or subordinate.

The ones whose voice is more beautiful and stronger, those who know more mania and who can play the drum better were chosen as drummer. During the month of Ramadan, they were getting salary during the feast as well as salary.

At that time, conquerors were gathered in the mosques of Fatih, Eyüp Sultan, Hagia Sophia, Suleymaniye and Sultanahmet. then events were organized in various places. these were activities such as karagöz play, middlegame, and meddah, which continue to a small extent today.

In the heavenly coffeehouses that ended in the early 1900s, chants were read and chatted.
Sacred relics, such as the cardigan-i sheriff, are open to visitors, and for women who are very difficult to visit here in normal times, they would only be designated on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, exclusively for them. It was forbidden for men to come these days.

It is also necessary to mention a good practice called zimem (debt book).

wealthy people would roam random places and close the debts of poor people who had debts in their books, such as grocery stores and grocery stores. he does not say his name paying the debt; the tradesman could not ask who he was.

you see an example of a zimem here:
The mahya tradition, which continues today, was also in Ottoman. A depiction of a ridge is clearly seen in the drawings of the German traveler Schweigger, who came to Istanbul during the second semester of the sultan:
Mass iftars were organized through foundations supported by sultans and state officials. The tables were set up in two stages, especially in these iftars, which were organized for the poor to eat better meals during the month of Ramadan. At first, breakfast, such as olives, dates, cheeses, and honey, were found on the tables, which are called honesty. then the evening prayer is carried out collectively, and when the moral returns, he sees that the main dishes are served on their tables.

Again, as a forgotten period, there was a tradition of dental rent in Osmanli.

In the mansions where Ramadan was visited, gifts given to the guests were called dental rent. in other words, this is the situation where the rich both satisfies the poor and delights with a gift.

During the period of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, the pilaf prepared for the people who were called to the palace was put gold in it and they would be delighted if gold came to their plate. Others were jealous of the phrase "gold again ... to this title." so I would be jealous if I were.

this tradition continued until the second legitimacy, but it has disappeared after the palace did not want to give money to such good things about the public or the decline of the owners of this tradition.
so why is his name rental, let me explain it too
Before giving the gifts to the host, he returned to the guests and said, "You came to my house to give me rewards. You tired your teeth to eat from our food. These gifts are the right to teeth." He said from him.

There was also the term "eve flower" which is now forgotten.

This was a term used for children who wore their festivities one day before the feast and wandered excitedly in the neighborhoods. The kids would announce that they will collect hands and collect tips tomorrow. These children in tinsel clothes were also called the eve flowers.
a good statement.

An ottoman tradition, whose real name is fasting on the boat, but which has become a boat fasting at the mouth of the people, is still one of those that continue today. In this tradition, which emerged when children wanted to fast like their parents, children fasted between morning and noon and they were allowed by the neighborhood imam to open their fasts at noon by saying "this is your fasting". Of course, the children who saw that the ulama gave answers also believed this.

and an application called exit to cerre was applied during the Ottoman period.

In the months of recep, shabban and Ramadan, which we call three months, madrasahs would be holidayed, students of madrasahs were sent to various provinces and they gave lessons to the public on religious matters.
At the same time, wealthy people of the moral would provide financial aid to these students and therefore to madrasahs.

Considering the words of ziya gokalp, "the collapse of the Ottoman Empire started with the collapse of the madrasah", this practice is a very good system both to increase the scientific level of the people and to provide scholarship resources for madrasah students. However, in the last period of the Ottoman Empire, this system was also corrupted and students without any scientific accumulation went around to ask for money from the public.


Finally, if we need to talk about peace lessons
This practice, which started systematically during the Sultan's third Mustafa era and continued until the abolition of the caliphate, was the name given to tafsir lessons held before the Sultan in the Ramadan months.

In these lessons held between noon and afternoon, except on Fridays, a lecture (usually sheikh al-Islam) and 7 to 15 lessons would be listeners with the sultan. then these people discussed in the scientific subjects and completed the lesson. The last calm lesson was given to the last caliph Abdulmecid Efendi.

abundant Ramadan to the whole Islamic world; I wish healthy and peaceful lives to all humanity.

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