History and Future of Space-Time Idea

In this article, we examine the past, present and tomorrow of the concept known as space-time and which is at the background of every functioning in the universe.
Physicist Eric Davis, who studies Albert Einstein's quantum field theory, explains space-time as follows:

“Einstein's theory of special relativity, published in 1905, shows that German Mathematician Hermann Minkowski is the unified space-time model of space, which shows that time is just as important for space as other physical dimensions - length, height and width - as we experience in our daily lives. It was adapted. In physics, space-time is a mathematical modeling of continuing space and time intertwined throughout the universe. ”

In addition to Davis, Professor Luca Ammendola from Germany Heidelberg University says:

“Space-time is the scene of a phenomenon. It is not an unchangeable scene composed of only stationary things; a scene that changes with events such as the movement of planets, the interaction of particles, and reproduction of cells. ”
History of Space-Time Idea
The idea that space and time are united and related is a theory that has started to be accepted and developed very recently in the history of science. In the early 1900s, Minkowski created the unified space-time model based on the work of Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz and French theoretical physicist Henri Poincare. Einstein, then a student of Minkowski, created his own special theory of relativity by adapting Minkowski's model in 1905.

Amendola says this on the subject:

“Opinions about space, the idea of a constant scene in which matter moves, reflected the practice of the ideas of the first Greek philosophers until the beginning of the 20th century. Time was considered invariable in this period because you cannot travel freely in time while traveling in space. Time flows the same for everyone at this time. ”

Eric Davis says:
"By combining the different theoretical works of Einstein Poincare, Lorentz and Minkowski, he revealed the overall relativity of his own inclusive, electromagnetic force and power, which thoroughly and in detail treat the behavior."

Space-Time Breakthrough
In special relativity, space-time geometry is fixed, but observers measure different distances or time intervals based on their relative speed. In general relativity, space-time geometry changes according to the motion of matter and its effects.

“Einstein's general theory of relativity is the first and greatest theoretical leap forward in the unified space-time model. The space-time model has allowed us to have an idea of ​​the formation and existence of our universe, ”says Davis.

Einstein predicted phenomena such as black holes and white holes in General Relativity. He also predicted that there was an event horizon, a dimension in which gravity was infinite, and a center where nothing could escape. General Relativity also means that astronomical objects can rotate by dragging spacetime, the Big Bang, the inflationary expansion of space, the gravitational waves, the gravitational refraction caused by massive galaxies, the shift in orbit of Mercury. He envisaged other planetary shapes, everything science demonstrated to be true, as well as engines that can accelerate the speed of light, have the power to drive, travel through wormholes, and time machines. In addition, general relativity led to the emergence of the second major breakthrough, cosmology, for the unified space-time model.
Understanding the concept of space-time led to an understanding in quantum field theory. Quantum Mechanics, a theory about the motion of atoms and photons, was first published in 1925. At first, the idea considered space and time separate and independent of each other. After World War II, theoretical physicists found a way to mathematically combine Einstein's special relativity and quantum mechanics, and Quantum Field Theory was born. This theory led to the development of the Quantum Electrodynamic Theory (QED Theory) in the 1950s, including topics such as quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation and the separation of electrical charges. In the 1970s, the QED theory, combined with the weak nuclear force theory, created the weak electricity theory that defined the same forces from different perspectives. In 1973, scientists developed the theory, known as the Quantum Chromodynamic Theory (QCD Theory), which explains the powerful nuclear force on quarks and gluons, the main particles.

In the 1980s and 1990s, physicists combined this QED theory, QCD theory, and Weak Electricity theory to create this mega theory known as the "Standard Model of Particle Physics." This theory explains the nature of all the fundamental particles that know now, the external forces on them, all their interactions with themselves and other particles. The particle called “Higgs Boson”, which was later envisioned by Peter Higgs in the 1960s, was also found by the Big Hardon Collider at CERN in 2012.
Davis explains that thanks to experimental breakthroughs, many fundamental particles have been obtained and their interactions are known today. These experimental breakthroughs also envisage two new forms of matter arising from the advances in the condensed theory of matter and included in some textbooks. Many of the states of matter discovered using condensed matter theory were discovered using the mathematical mechanism of Quantum Field Theory.

“Condensed materials include exotic states of matter such as metallic gas, photonic crystal, metamaterial, nanomaterial, semiconductor, crystal, liquid crystal, insulator, conductive, superconductor, superconducting liquid. And it's all based on the unified space-time model, ”explains Davis.

The Future of Space-Time Idea
Scientists continue to develop their perceptions of space-time, using experiments that involve certain space tasks and observations about space-time. Hubble Space Telescope, which measures the expansion acceleration of space, is one of the measurement tools that provides this development. Launched in 2004, NASA's Gravity Review B Mission is working on the effect of Earth's spin on space-time bending. Starting in 2012, NuSTAR mission is working on black holes. Many other telescopes and tasks also help study these phenomena.

On Earth, particle accelerators have been working on particles that have been moving very fast for decades.

“The best way to validate relativity is to observe the particles that decay at a certain time. The duration of this decay is getting longer as the particles move very fast and their acceleration increases. Because the time interval gets longer as the relative speed increases, ”says Amendola.

Future tasks and experiments will continue to study space-time in more depth. Euclide, the co-satellite of ESA and NASA, is preparing for 2020 and will work to test and map astronomical ideas about the dark matter and dark energy that caused the universe to grow. On Earth, LIGO and VIRGO observatories will continue to study gravitational waves, small waves in space-time curvature.

“If we can deal with black holes, we can also deal with accelerated particles in the same way. We can learn a lot about space-time, ”says Amendola.
Understanding Space-Time
Can scientists deal with space-time problems? Actually, it depends on how you ask.
“Physicists have grasped the most basic parts of the space-time issue with Einstein's theory of General Relativity and Special Relativity, the most wonderful theory of space-time. However, they have not yet fully grasped the quantum effect on space-time and gravity, ”Davis explains.

Amendola also joins Davis. Amendola thinks that scientists' concept of space-time at great distances is easier to understand than the concept of space-time in the microscopic worlds of simple particles.

“Perhaps the concept of spacetime at short distances has just taken on a new form or is not continuous. Despite this, we are still far from this border, ”says Amendola.

Today's physicists are unable to experiment directly with black holes or to energies high enough to cause new phenomena to appear. "Even astronomical observations on black holes are not satisfactory because it is not easy to work on a substance that fully absorbs light," Amendola adds. So scientists have to use indirect ways to study black holes.

Davis explains this situation as follows; “Understanding the quantum nature of space-time is the holy grail of 21st century physics. We are stuck in the quagmire of the proposed theories that do not seem to be able to solve these problems ”.

Amendola says with her optimistic attitude; “Nothing can stop us. Understanding space-time will only take a while. ”


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