Extensive summary of the American War of Independence, beginning with the uprising of British colonies

Let's find out what the war is between the years 1775–1783 between Great Britain and Thirteen Colonies in North America, which resulted in the establishment of the United States.
The American War of Independence (1775-1783), also known as the American Revolution or the American Revolutionary War, resulted in Britain gaining political independence of 13 of the North American colonies and continuing to establish the United States. war after more than a decade of growth between British crown and a large and influential part of the British north american colonies, after more than a decade of attempts to gain more control over colonial affairs after the British decided to stick to the long-neglected colonial policy came. Until the beginning of 1778, the conflict was a civil war within the British empire, but later became an international war in which France (in 1778) and Spain (in 1779) joined the colonies against Britain. Meanwhile, the Netherlands, which provided both the official recognition and financial support of the USA, started its own war against England. From the very beginning, maritime power was vital in determining the course of the war. Helping the French to destroy the relatively few troops sent to America due to the British strategy by the colonial forces, the naval power provided flexibility to the colonial force, which helped finalize the last British delivery in yorktown at the end of the revolution (war).
Mobilization until 1778
Americans mainly fought with two types of organizations in their war on land: the continental army and state militia. The total number of continental army provided by the states during the revolution was 231,771 soldiers, while the militia was 164,087. however, the American forces rarely held over 20,000 forces at any one time; In 1781, only 29,000 soldiers were under arms across the country. the war was therefore fought by small armies. these armies generally consisted of poorly disciplined militias and operated under the command of officers for periods not exceeding three months. the continental army's terms of service were only gradually increased from one to three years, but even rewards and land offers were not enough to strengthen the army. the reasons for the difficulty in providing a sufficient continental force; it included the traditional antipathy of colonies towards regular armies, farmers' objections to stay away from their fields, provincial conflicts, and reasons such as misery and uncertain salaries that would come with inflation.
America map in 1778.
In contrast, the British army was a reliable professional force. While the number of colonies they established in the new world is about 42,000, heavy mobilization programs were launched in the British army. Most of the men who joined the army were farmer children, as did the Americans. others were unemployed in the outskirts of cities. many people joined the army to escape fines or prison. The vast majority of the participants became efficient soldiers thanks to a solid and heavy disciplinary training. officers, on the other hand, were largely elected from aristocratic people. Most of the elected officers acquired their positions by purchasing them. They had not received formal training and, like many Americans, had no academic knowledge of military tactics. While British generals tended to lack of imagination and initiative, those who showed such qualifications were generally in the lower rank.

With a small number of soldiers and how long the war would be unknown, the traditional government and the British government bought about 30,000 mercenaries from various German principalities. hesse principality made up about three fifths of the total figure. The use of foreign mercenaries in America by the crown fueled the feeling of hostility in the region against the British.

introduction to war
massachusetts colony, king iii. It was seen as a slot of infidelity by George and his ministers. After the Boston tea party (December 16, 1773), the parliament responded with a series of criminal measures, intolerable acta (untolerable actions / 1774), aimed at the obedience of the population. The 1691 statute of the Massachusetts Gulf Colony was abolished, and the elected ruling council of the colony was replaced by a military government led by general thomas gage, commander of all British troops in north america. At the gage's headquarters in Boston, there were four regiments, about 4,000 people under his command, and parliament saw this force sufficient to control the surrounding population. the second earl of dartmouth, secretary general of the colonies, said to william legge by gage:

"The violence that emerged in Massachusetts emerged as a rude sword action with arms, without any plan, without unity, without management."

William Legge from London replied:

"If this incident is put to the test with little force for now, their defeat will have a great chance of success. If the people there want to suffer greater pain, we will give them what they want and send them a huge army."
This answer, which is quite tuning, also meant that no support will be sent to gage at the moment. In his name, gage thought that his total force of less than 20,000 could not be enough for such a possible revolt, but he still acted with the force he had. Beginning in late summer of 1774, gage tried to suppress the preparations for war in new england. captured weapons and gunpowder tanks. colonies, on the other hand, took action in a short time despite the surprise raids they encountered at the beginning. Groups like sons of liberty exposed the details of the British actions and reported it to the communications committee, which helped organize the rebellion. The communications committee sent paul revere to transmit the secret british weapon reserve in william and mary castle, a small outpost in portsmouth, new hampshire, on 13 december 1774. The next day, several hundred men surrounded the castle and stepped on it. A six-person garrison was captured, a significant amount of gunpowder was collected, and a British flag was fired. then a group captured the remaining guns and small guns. This raid, which was a clear act of violence against the crown, freaked out British officials, but the raids of increasingly vital war material in the following months had further disturbed their nerves. The insurgents' insurgency attempts included looting weapons and ammunition from the British homes, and many small and large arsenals in the area were looted. On April 14, 1775, gage received a letter from william legge telling him that there was an open riot in massachusetts and that he “arrested and imprisoned the main actors and criminal partners at the continental congress”. He had received the gage orders, but the colonies had set their intentions long before the gage took action.
the journey of paul revere, the wars of lexington and concord
On April 16, the rider drove his horse to concord, a town 32 km northwest of Boston, to inform the American soldiers to secure their military equipment before the British military movements. two nights later, revere jumped again from charleston to his horse to warn lexington, from the old north church of boston, verified by the sons of liberty community, against the charles river, lexington. revolutionary leaders john hancock and samuel adams fled safely from lexington, and other equestrians william dawes and samuel prescott joined the revere. The trio was caught by a British patrol outside of Lexington, but prescott escaped from custody and continued to drive to concord. Revere's "midnight journey," provided the colonies with vital information about British intentions, and then immortalized in the poem of henry wadsworth longfellow.

On the evening of April 18, 1775, about 700 British forces gathered from the Boston people were ordered to seize the arsenal of colonial forces in Concord. The British displaying themselves caused the gage to lose any chance of privacy, and the time was 2:00 the next morning when the force passed from charles to cambridge. This march towards Lexington was full of restlessness. The journey started in the swamp and the British were forced to wait in the waters that are partly waist deep. When the infantry stuck in the swamp came to Lexington at 17:00, there were 77 minutemen among those gathered on the meadow of the village. officers on both sides ordered their men to hold their positions but not to fire their weapons. however, guns exploded. It was not clear who fired “gun shots heard from all over the world”, but created a conflict that led to the death of eight Americans. the colonial force dissipated, and the British switched to concord, where they were met by the decisive resistance of hundreds of militants. The ammunition of the British force, which is now less in number, was decreasing and they had to retreat to Boston. American snipers on the retreat march killed the bullets fatally over the British, and the timely arrival of a supplement of 1,100 only prevented the retreat from turning into disaster. 273 British and 95 Americans were killed or wounded in the wars of Lexington and Concord.
Battle of Boston siege and bunker hill
As the rebellious militia approached Boston from nearly every part of new england, London tried to formulate a response. generals sir william howe, sir henry clinton and john burgoyne were sent together in reinforcement at a time, and charles cornwallis were also sent after them. these four commanders would be responsible for the task of conducting mainstream operations. In the continental congress held in philadelphia for the actions of the 13 colonies, votes were cast for general defense measures, troops were called, and george washington was appointed commander of virginia. Washington ordered gage howe to drive Americans from the charlestown hills, before taking responsibility for the 15,000 colony troops that had sieged the British garrison in Boston.
Americans entered the breed's hill under the two hills facing the British position and provoked the attack. The placement of american artillery on the hills would make the British position in Boston defenseless, so on June 17, 1775, the howe launched a British pre-attack against the American fortifications. In the battle, which is misleadingly called bunker hill (breed’s hill was the main center of the war), howe’s 2,300 soldiers attacked the rebels despite the fires on them. The British ultimately cleared the hill, but this offensive cost more than 40 percent of the British attack power, and the war was a victory for the morale of Americans.
and washington takes command
On July 3, Washington took over the command of the American forces in Cambridge. In his army, he not only hosted the British in Boston, but also formed a continental army from this army. Between the winter of 1775-76, the troops' situation was so bad that new militia troops gathered to continue the siege. the balance changed at the end of winter when general henry knox arrived with artillery from the ticonderoga fortress in new york. The British fortress, which has a strategic spot between Lake George and Champlain Lake, was captured in a surprising raid on May 10, 1775 by the vermont militia group green mountain boys, under the command of colonel ethan allen. The guns from ticonderoga were taken to the hills of dorchester on boston. guns caused howe, who was appointed in place of gage in October 1775, to evacuate the city on March 17, 1776. howe later moved to halifax to prepare to invade new york and moved his units south to defend washington.

Meanwhile, things were heating up in the north. In the autumn of 1775, Americans invaded Canada. A force under the command of Gen. Richard Montgomery captured Montreal on November 13. Another force under the command of benedict arnold made a remarkable march from maine's wilderness to quebec. Arnold, who could not take over the city, joined Montgomery because most of their soldiers had returned to their homes because their deals had ended. An attack on the city failed on the last day of the year, montgomery was killed and many troops were captured. Americans continued to surround the city, but withdrew with the arrival of British reinforcements in the spring. Americans, followed by the British and worn by smallpox, returned to ticonderoga. British General Guy Carleton's hope of crossing Lake Champlain was hampered by the counterattack of Arnold's war fleet. Carleton, who set up his own war fleet, destroyed most of the American fleet in October 1776, but was still unable to advance enough to take the ticonderoga under siege by the end of the year.

While Americans were defeated in Canada, the British shared the same fate in the south. north carolina nationals won a victory on the moore’s creek bridge on 27 february 1776. In south carolina, charleston was successfully defended against British attacks by sea in June.
war for new york
The British government, who had decided to suppress the revolt, sent general howe and his brother admiral lord richard howe to new york with a large fleet and 34,000 english-german soldiers. howe brothers were also given a commission that would determine the treatment for americans. British forces sailed from halifax to new york on June 10, 1776 and arrived on staten island on July 5. The continental congress, which declared the independence of the colonies, initially thought that the howe brothers had the authority to negotiate the peace conditions, but later realized that this commission was empowered to forgive them only if the rebels abandoned their work.

Due to the coercion of the colonial forces, the peace efforts of the howees had no results. Predicting British moves, Washington had already walked from Boston to New York and strengthened the city. however, their location was far from ideal. The left wing was located across the eastern river, beyond the village of brooklyn, while the rest of its lines headed towards the hudson river, and these troops were deployed in a place prone to possible sea and land attacks by the British. This position was undefitable because the British dominated the waters around manhattan. howe pushed washington away from new york and proceeded to the left of the colonial forces using three well-equipped forces and forced the americans to leave the entire manhattan island. On August 22, 1776, under the protection of his brother's weapons, general howe crossed the narrow shores of the long island with 20,000 soldiers, whose number would rise to 25,000 on August 25. Later, on August 27, he won a great victory, pushing Americans to Brooklyn, losing about 1,400 people. George Washington had successfully managed to evacuate his army from Brooklyn to Manhattan under a mist.

On September 15, he continued his victory by invading Manhattan. The next day, he took control of the harlem hills despite harsh resistance and pushed washington from the island in October, moving to the throg’s neck and then to the new rochelle in the northeast of the city. Washington, which left garrisons in washington castle in manhattan and fort lee on the opposite bank of the hudson river, accelerated to block howe. however, the British commander defeated washington on chatterton hill near white plains on October 28. howe entered between the american army and fort washington and raided the fortress on 16 november. took weapons, materials and about 3,000 people as prisoners. British forces, under the command of lord cornwallis, later took fort lee and started chasing the american army in new jersey on 24 november. Although Washington fled to the west side of the Delaware River, his army was almost destroyed. howe later placed his army with outposts in the winter district towns such as bordentown and trenton.

Washington returned on Christmas night with a slap-like response. Crossing the icy delaware river with 2,400 troops, he raided the hessian garrison in trenton at dawn and received about 1000 prisoners. On January 2, 1777, despite being trapped by cornwallis who took back Trenton, Washington made an ingenious escape during the night, the next day he won a battle against British reinforcements in Princeton and went to the wintery area around Morristown, a well-defensible place. Washington's trenton-princeton expedition led the country and saved the struggle for independence from extinction.
Saratoga's surrender and French inclusion
Britain's strategy in 1777 aimed to get in between new england and other colonies like a wedge. An army under the command of general john burgoyne was heading south from canada and was about to join forces with the howe in hudson. however, howe thought burgoyne's army was strong enough to fight on his own, and in summer he ordered to leave his new york and take his army to the head of the chesapeake bay. On the 11th of September after landing, he defeated Washington badly in the brandywine stream, but this was not a definite victory. He proceeded to the west with a deceptive tactic, and then, with a maneuver, entered the capital of America, Philadelphia, on September 25. continental congress fled to york upon this maneuver. washington attacked germantown on 4 october but had to retreat and returned to the winter region in the forge valley.

in the north, the story was different. Burgoyne would go to Albany in the south direction, with a loyalist force of about 9,000 British, German, Native American and American. Colonel Barry St. A smaller force under the command of leger would be included in the army going to albany, passing through the mohawk valley. burgoyne took ticonderoga comfortably on July 5th, and then opted for a walking route from land to south instead of boats to cross the george lake. He sent the Germans to bring horses to Vermont, requiring horses due to rough terrains and roads blocked by trees cut by American ax troops under the command of American general Philip Schuyler. The Germans were ambushed and almost completely destroyed by the new englanders group under the command of general john stark and colonel seth warner on August 16. by the way st. leger besieged fort schuyler (nowadays roman, new york). On August 6, he raided Oriskany, a breathing space for American militia, but withdrew with the approach of the Indians and troops under arnold's command. the burgoyne had reached hudson, but the americans under the command of general horatio gates surrounded the troops of burgoyne around freeman’s farm on 19 september, and thanks to arnold's military leadership, he was definitively defeated in bemis hills on 7 oct. burgoyne, who was unlikely to get help from new york, surrendered to saratoga.

The most important consequence of the burgoyne's surrender was that France entered the war. The French have been secretly providing financial aid since 1776. They have now prepared a fleet and armies for this situation, but they did not officially declare war until June 1778.
The French in the War of Independence
Land trips after 1778
The Americans at valley forge had a wicked winter, which became worse with quartermasters (serdens) and commissioners mishandling the process, corruption of contract owners, and farmers' unwillingness to sell products for cash. The order and discipline among the soldiers evolved with the introduction of a prussian officer, baron freiherr von steuben, to France. steuben has prepared a training program for officers to receive intensive training and more effective use of firearms.

The education provided by the Prussian school fruited on June 28, 1778, in Washington, Philadelphia, from the Philadelphia to New York. although sir henry clinton took a hard hit, replacing howe, the americans stopped in their place and never dispersed. Washington then brought his headquarters to west point in hudson, and clinton thought he was too weak to attack washington.

French aid was accomplished by a powerful fleet under the command of count charles henri hector d'estaing. d'estaing, who could not enter the port of new york, tried to help john sullivan remove the english from newport, rhode island but storms and british supplements prevented joint effort.

setbacks in the north
activities in the north were largely a dilemma compared to the rest of the war. While the British raided New Bedford in Massachusetts and New Haven and New London in Connecticut, loyalists and Indians attacked residential areas in New York and Pennsylvania. Americans under the command of the crazy Anthony Wayne raided stony point in New York on July 16, 1779, and Henry Lee, nicknamed "Light-Horse Harry", took the Paul Hook in New Jersey on August 19 and Britain's Indian allies destroyed particularly the villages and cornfields in the west.In the west, colonel george rogers clark attacked the British garrisons on the northwestern border.klark, with a volunteer union, casketkia, on July 4, 1778, the administrative center of the Illinois region. captured and then forced vincennes to surrender.vincennes regained by british commander general henry hamilton in detroit, but in the spring of 1779, clark gathered another force and took vincennes back from hamilton. did much to save the border from Indian raids. The son offered a chance to advance and encouraged expansion into the ohio valley.

Possible serious blows to the American cause were arnold's betrayal in 1780 and army revolts in 1780-1781. When Arnold met with British representative John Andre at West Point and attempted to betray him, Arnold escaped, but John Andre was caught by Americans and hung by a spy on George Washington's order. The revolts started on the basis of unpaid debts, along with poor food and clothing for volunteer soldiers. The riots, suppressed by violence or negotiation, shook the morale of the army.
The execution of Andre.
last expeditions in the south and surrender of cornwallis
The British strategy in 1778 aimed to gain comfort thanks to sea power and to carry out attacks designed by taking advantage of the loyalty of many people. British forces advancing from New York and Florida occupied Georgia in January 1779. general augustine prevost, who commanded the army in florida, made savannah his headquarters and defended the city against d'estaing and a french-american army. Kazimierz Pulaski, a Polish officer on the American side, was fatally injured as a result of a failed attack on 9 October 1779.
In 1779, clinton, who could not gain a decisive advantage in the north, headed for a combined land and sea expedition to the south. On October 25, he evacuated newport, the German general wilhelm freiherr left new york with the army under the command of von knyphausen and sailed with about 8,500 soldiers to join the prevost in savannah in December. cornwallis accompanied him, and then lord rawdon joined him with additional strength. clinton wrapped around the city after walking to charleston, and after a brief siege forced general benjamin lincoln to surrender on 12 may 1780. The loss of charleston and 5,000 garrisons - almost the entire continental army - was a serious blow to the southern American cause. Having learned that newport was threatened by a French expeditionary force under the command of comte de rochambeau, clinton returned to new york in june and left cornwallis in charleston.
cornwallis chose an aggressive strategy here. On August 16, general shattered the army of gates in south carolina camden, and in this war the German continental army officer johann heart was wounded fatally. On 7 October, the destruction of a loyalist force in kings mountain set cornwallis against a new american commander, general nathanael greene. When Greene put some of his force under the command of general daniel morgan, cornwallis drove the cavalry leader colonel banastre tarleton over morgan. On January 17, 1781, in cowpens, morgan nearly destroyed all the force of tarleton. Later, on March 15, Greene and Cornwallis fought at the Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina. cornwallis won but suffered heavy casualties. After retiring to Wilmington, he walked to Virginia to join the British forces sent by Clinton.
greene later returned to south carolina. On April 25, he was defeated by Francis Rawdon on Hobkirk Hill and on September 8 by Colonel Alexander Stewart at Eutaw Springs. Despite these successes, the British were harassed by partisan leaders such as francis marion, thomas swter and andrew pickens, who gave him the nickname of “swamp fox” for guerrilla tactics. they retreated to the beach and locked between charleston and savannah.
meanwhile, cornwallis entered virginia and reached petersburg on 20 may 1781. The British, who sent the tarleton to raid colonies, created a control area in the north, up to fredericksburg and charlottesville in the west. there, the governor of virginia thomas jefferson barely escaped being captured by the men of tarleton. cornwallis started building a base in yorktown and also fled the american forces under the command of wayne, steuben and lafayette brand.
After learning that comte de grasse came to chesapeake with a French force of 3000 and a large fleet, washington and rochambeau moved south of virginia. By mid-September, the French-American forces had sieged yorktown, and Britain's efforts to lift the siege failed. cornwallis surrendered his army of more than 7,000 soldiers on 19 October. With the British losing their entire army, one side lost their entire army for the second time during the war.
Although the war continued on the high seas after that, land operations in America ended. eventually clinton was replaced by sir guy carleton. While the peace treaties were being evaluated and afterwards, cartonton evacuated thousands of loyalists from all over America, including savannah on July 11, 1782 and charleston on December 14. The last British forces left New York on November 25, 1783, and Washington later re-entered the city with a victory ceremony.
naval wars
Due to the outbreak of conflict at sea between the colonies and Britain, the war on the sea continued mainly among the European allies of Britain and America, although they attempted to challenge the British at sea.
the situation of the navy at that time
The colonies, which did not have a real naval force at the beginning of the revolution, had a large number of merchant ships used in domestic and foreign trade, with a large maritime population. this merchant service was not only familiar with the sea, but also with war. The ships of the colonies and the sailors participated in the war in Cartagena, Spain, and Louisburg, Nova Scotia during the nine-year war between 1754 and 1763 between Britain and France. Colonists also participated in the French-Indian wars, the American leg of the seven-year war.

the importance of sea power was noticed early. In October 1775, the continental congress launched the continental naval forces and established the marines in November. The navy, led by maritime committees, was only effective from time to time. In 1776 England had only 27 ships against 270 ships. At the end of the war, the total number of ships in the British would increase to 500, and the number of Americans would drop to 20. Most of the best seafarers available were those who left the private sector of seafaring or piracy, and continental naval commanders and crew suffered from a lack of military training and discipline.

early missions and pirates
The first major blow to the navy was hit in 1776 by admiral-ass hopkins, who took over the new providence (nassau) in the Bahamas. Other captains such as lambert wickes, gustavus conyngham, and john barry have also been successful, but john paul jones of scotch were particularly noteworthy. As the captain of the ranger ship, Jones took over the old warship drake in 1778 and haunted the British coast. In 1779, Bonhomme captured a timber convoy and British frigate serapis as the captain of the Richard ship.

What caused the British the real damage was the raids by American pirates to their shipments. During peace, colonial ships were traditionally armed as a means of protection against pirates and sailed to the seas. sailors were as experienced as pirates. therefore, with the onset of the war, it was natural for a significant number of colonial merchant ships to arm like a pirate. this practice continued until the end of the war under the jurisdiction of individual colonies and the continental congress. records are missing, but during the war it shows that more than 2,000 armed ships, large and small, carried more than 18,000 weapons and more than 70,000 men. In addition, many of the colonies organized state navies that acted as pirates and damaged trade. these operations were so great that they should be viewed as one of the American military efforts in the war. The pressure of the Americans, along with the operations of several colonial ships, materially affected the British attitude towards peace. At the end of 1777, American ships took 560 British ships and probably 1,500 ships were seized at the end of the war. More than 12,000 British sailors were also taken prisoners. such losses have led to an unprecedented increase in insurance rates in trade in the UK, a substantial reduction of available income sources, and a constant alarm of British coastal populations in the event of the rain falling. By 1781, British merchants were almost struggling to end the war.
most naval operations took place at sea as expected. but there were also important exceptions: arnold's battles against carleton took place in champlain lake on valcour island on 11 october and split rock on 13 october 1776. this forced the British to create a larger fleet, thereby delaying their attack on fort ticonderoga until next spring. this delay contributed significantly to the surrender of burgoyne in saratoga in 1777.

french intervention and decisive action in virginia capes
The entry of France into war, then Spain in 1779 and Holland in 1780 caused important developments in the sea direction of the war. Spaniards and Dutch were not particularly active, but their role to keep British navy attached to Europe was important. The British navy failed to maintain an effective blockade of both the American coast and enemy ports. Due to years of neglect, ships on Britain's line were not modern or sufficient in number. As a result, France's toulon fleet, under the command of d'estaing, came to America comfortably and safely, and later assisted sullivan in the unsuccessful newport siege. In addition, a violent war between the channel fleet under command of admiral augustus keppel, which took place in ushant in 1778, and the brest fleet under comte d'orvilliers, was fruitless. If keppel had won precisely, the French aid to the Americans could have been reduced and rochambeau would never lead his voyage to America to victory.

The following year, England was in danger. It's not just the United States, France and Spain that are in trouble with pirates anymore. and not only faced the flock of john paul jones to their shores, but also experienced the fear of invasion. The combined fleets of France and Spain took control of the British channel, and 50,000 French armies were waiting for the moment to land. Fortunately for the British, the threat ended with English-language storms, French diseases and plan changes.

Despite the allied superiority in the canal in 1779, the threat of occupation, and the loss of the islands in the west indian islands, the British took control of the southern part of the north american coast to enable their expeditions in 1779 and 1780. They also strengthened the Gibraltar, which the Spaniards received under siege in the autumn of 1779, and sent the fleet of admiral sir george rodney to the west islands in early 1780. After an unsuccessful maneuver against estaing's comte de guichen, rodney set out for new york.

While rodney was on the west indian islands, a french fleet left brest and went to newport with the army of rochambeau. Instead of preventing the approach to Newport, Rodney returned to the West Indies. After receiving instructions to attack the Dutch islands, he captured the island of sint eustatius, which served as the main repository of war supplies sent from Europe and shipped to American ships. For six months he worked on the island for the destruction and removal of massive loot.
Meanwhile, a strong British fleet relieved Gibraltar in 1781, but the cost was that the force under the command of the admiral comte de grasse (Count of Grasse) françois-joseph-paul went to west india. After maneuvering against Rodney, comte de grasse requested to arrive in New York or Chesapeake from Washington and Rochambeau.

Previously, a French fleet tried to bring troops from newport to chesapeake in March, but was forced to return by admiral marriot arbuthnot, the predecessor of lord howe. Soon after, arbuthnot was replaced by a traditional-minded admiral, Thomas graves.

After a news announcement that a French fleet would leave the West Indies in a short period of time, Rodney returned to England with the booty, giving Samuel the hood a strong force and sending the hood north. Shortly after the hood anchored in new york, it appeared in the comte de grasse chesapeake. Until Washington and Rochambeau arrived, he landed troops to help Lafayette hold cornwallis. Afraid that rochambeau's train carrying ball from newport could join comte de grasse, graves sailed to chesapeake with hood. graves had 19 ship of lines versus 24 ship of line of comte de grasse. In the war that started on September 5 in Virginia capes, graves did their worst and retreated to new york. So he broke the deeds notebook of cornwallis's army in yorktown. The graves increased the number of ships to 25 with a strong reinforcement on October 17, while the comte de grasse reinforced by barras had 36 ships. After graves learned that cornwallis surrendered, there was no battle between these two fleets.
Britain later compensated for some of his losses, but his defeat and catch on rodney's comte de grasse in the battle of santa dominica in 1782 and defeats or wins on the west indian islands were not as decisive as the defeat in yorktown. A new government led by lord shelburne (william petty-fitzmaurice) tried to ensure that each of the american leaders agreed to a separate peace, but ultimately the negotiations with the americans did not come into force until the official ceasefire with the european allies ended.

the fate of the revolution
Preliminary peace clauses were signed on November 30, 1782, and the Paris peace treaty (September 3, 1783) ended the US war of independence. Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States (with the western borders of the Mississippi River) and left Florida to Spain. The treaty also included provisions such as the payment of US private debts to British citizens, the opening of newfoundland fishing to American use, and fair trials for Americans loyal to Britain.

While explaining the outcome of the war, historians point out that the British never actively participated in a general strategy to win the war. In addition, in the early stages of the war, the British generals, particularly howe, who had been dismissed, refused to take a quick, strong and intelligent measure against the rebellion. While they chose to take minimal risk against rebellion (for example, in carleton ticonderoga and howe brooklyn heights and pennsylvania) they lost the opportunity to deliver potentially fatal blows. there was a serious lack of understanding and cooperation in very important moments (as in 1777 in burgoyne and howe). The British were waiting for the support of the loyalists, who were too many, but there were no significant volunteers.

however, English mistakes alone are not enough to explain the success of the United States. Americans often forced their enemies to make mistakes as their mobilization in war increased over time. moreover, the continental army was by no means a clumsy force even before the reforms of steuben. Although militias are often unreliable, they were able to sign admirable works led by people who understand and empower them frequently in crises, such as arnold, greene and morgan. moreover, washington, a rock beating waves of troubles, gradually but quite well learned the art of generality. The support and funds provided by France from 1776 to 1778 were invaluable, and after 1778 the French army and naval support became necessary. hence the result is due to a combination of English mistakes, American efforts and French help.


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