Emperors of the Ice: Penguins | How do they withstand the cold?

During the months of March and April, at the South Pole, emperor penguins leave the ocean and travel in groups over 100 km. 🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧
As the air temperature drops to -50 degrees, how do penguins survive, breed, raise offspring?
Here is the mysterious world of penguins ...
We have compiled the interesting life of the penguins from the Atlas Magazine archive (2015). How are they proliferating?
Emperor penguins living in Antarctica live under conditions that few living things can survive in this coldest region of the world, where the air temperature drops to minus 50 degrees in winter and the wind reaches 200 kilometers per hour.
During the autumn months of March and April in the South Pole, emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) leave the ocean and set out on a long journey that can exceed 100 kilometers in groups and sometimes reach their breeding grounds on foot, sometimes on their way. In these regions where the thick ice layer above the sea does not melt until summer, the juvenile penguins, who do not allow them to enter the cold waters even if their feathers keep them warm, are safe.
Female penguins in the breeding area carefully lay their eggs weighing about half a kilo on their wives' feet without dropping them on the ice. Then, they return to the open sea again to feed and collect food for their offspring. Male penguins, who take over the task from their spouse, carry the eggs on their feet for an average of 64 days, inside the special body area that covers them as blankets. Even if the egg touches the ice for a short time, the nestling inside may die.
Fathers spend this period in cooperation, almost free from their egos. On very cold and stormy days, they form large groups by snuggling into each other. So much so that 10-12 penguins can get stuck in a square meter area. A few years ago, Dr. Alfred Wegener from the Polar and Marine Research Institute in Germany. Daniel Zitterbart and his team analyzed their movements by viewing male penguins. Zitterbart and his colleagues discovered that the penguins in the group move at regular intervals in a coordinated manner. They found that penguins take small steps every 30-60 seconds, causing movement like a “Mexican wave” within the cramped group. Thus, the group's layout was gradually changing, and the animals that remained outside were shifting to warmer interiors.

Male penguins “wait for the watch” without putting a single bite in their mouths over the past three months after they arrive at their breeding grounds. In the book titled Animals at the Extremes: Polar Biology published by Open University in the UK, it is stated that penguin and many other large polar animals are hungry for long periods of time when their active and body temperatures are close to normal. It is stated that the emperor penguins, which were lubricated before the breeding season and hungry for weeks afterwards, had very little protein loss in their bodies, whereas if the human was hungry for a long time, there would be a significant amount of protein loss in his body long before the fat stores were exhausted. Protein loss has effects such as weakening and weakening of the muscles and reduced resistance of the immune system to infections.

Jessica Meir, an assistant professor at Harvard University School of Medicine, in her article published in the academic journal The Journal of Experimental Biology in 2013, states that the body temperature of emperor penguins remained stable at about thirty-seven degrees, even though they were in a freezing environment. While the outer feathers of the penguins are covered with oil and are waterproof, there are soft feathers underneath them. Dr. University of California, a medical doctor and marine biologist. Paul Ponganis says that when the air temperature is minus 20 or even minus 30 degrees, the temperature under the feathers of the penguins can be 30-35 degrees.
Dr. of the University of Glasgow in Scotland. In his articles published in the Journal of Biology Letters in 2013, Dominic McCafferty and his team state that penguin feathers provide more than 80 percent of thermal insulation and are very resistant to wind. Accordingly, “counter current heat exchange systems” in their bodies minimize the heat loss of penguins. Penguins' nasal cavities are also designed to prevent heat loss during breathing.

The return of the females corresponds exactly to the time of hatching of the offspring. If the female's arrival is delayed, the baby is fed with a liquid that is released from her father's esophagus, which is similar to the milk of mammals in terms of protein and fat content. When the spouses come together, just like they make the egg, they pass the little puppy from one's feet to the other. The men returning to the open sea then come back to feed the puppy. The female and male individuals continue to carry food to the offspring by going along the sea route, which is shortened by the warming of the weather and the melting of the ice. In summer, when the ice melts completely, the offspring, which also have waterproof feathers, enter the ocean. They will soon leave the ocean and embark on a long journey to their breeding grounds, just like their parents.

Photo: The lives of emperor penguins, a reflection of great mercy. Male penguins carry their eggs on their feet for an average of 64 days without feeding. If the female is delayed, the fry is fed with a liquid that comes from her father's esophagus, similar to the milk of mammals. (Dr. Paul PonganIs, American National Science Foundation (NSF))


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