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The nightmares are dreaming or disturbing dreams. According to research, more than 50 percent of adults have occasional nightmares. Some people, however, have more frequent nightmares and are called nightmares. Children see recurrent nightmares more often than adults, and not all nightmares are the same every night. Many nightmares follow similar themes but may differ in content. Whatever the nightmares; after waking, it often causes feelings of anger, sadness, crime and anxiety. These thoughts and feelings can make it difficult to fall asleep again. Recurrent nightmares often have an underlying cause. Below we will examine the common causes of recurrent nightmares and the treatment options of some basic conditions.
Reasons
The nightmares can arise for a number of reasons, but there are five common causes. We can list these reasons as follows:
1.Stres, Anxiety or Depression:  Stress is one of the emotions that many people find it difficult to channel productively. Therefore, dreams can be one of the only opportunities for the body to work with these emotions. According to a study, it was concluded that childhood stress and trauma may cause recurrent nightmares in later periods. Anxiety and depression can also cause nightmares. These nightmares may include self-esteem, relapse of the disease and even some panic attacks.

2.TSSB (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder): 71 percent of people with post-traumatic stress and disorder (PTSD) have nightmares. PTSD is one of the major causes of recurrent nightmares in adults. One of the most common symptoms of PTSD is da reliving matik and having a return to traumatic event or events. Sometimes these returns can manifest as nightmares. For people with PTSD, recurrent nightmares may cause various adverse effects, some of which may be listed as follows:
* Contributing to or worsening PTSD symptoms * Contributing to or deteriorating
depression
* Reducing sleep quality
The content of these nightmares may vary from person to person. For some people, these dreams are replicative nightmares where the original trauma is repeatedly played. For some, nightmares are symbolic for the emotions and feelings of the original trauma.
3. Underlying Medical Conditions:  Some sleep disorders may cause recurrent nightmares. Sleep apnea is characterized by continuous breathing during sleep. Narcolepsy is a nervous system disorder that causes severe daytime sleepiness, hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Conditions such as these may affect sleep quality and may be the underlying cause of recurrent nightmares .
4. Drugs:  Antidepressants ,other medications used to treat blood pressure medications and certain conditions can cause nightmares. According to a former study in 1998, the most common drugs that caused a nightmare were found to include sedative, hypnotic drugs, beta-blockers and amphetamines.
5. Substance addiction: There are many withdrawal symptoms caused by substance use, including nightmares  . These nightmares may be more intense at the start of withdrawal, but usually decrease in a few weeks. In addition, alcohol withdrawal is often seen.
What Should Be Done Against Nightmares and Nightmares?
Although nightmares and nightmares seem similar, they are quite different experiences. It is often a scary and real dream that causes a person to wake up immediately. Also, these dreams are often easily remembered. It is difficult to awaken the person who saw night terror. This person can experience screaming and even agitation such as sleepwalking. Despite these physical reactions, people who live in night terror often sleep deep.
Night terror and nightmares occur at different stages of sleep. When falling asleep, it usually moves through four sleep stages. In the first and second stage, a mild sleep state occurs. In the third and fourth stages, it falls into a deeper sleep. It is entered into the so-called fifth stage of sleep, which is a fast sleep movement (REM) sleep every 90 minutes. Night terrors are usually not during REM sleep, but nightmares occur during REM sleep.
therapies
In most cases, treating recurrent nightmares involves treating the underlying condition.
Depression and Anxiety
Treating diseases such as depression and anxiety can help solve thoughts and feelings that can lead to nightmares. We can list some of the treatment options for these conditions as follows:
• Psychotherapy, especially cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
• Selective serotonin withdrawal inhibitors such as SSRI
• Support groups
• Relaxation techniques such as meditation, Yoga, and deep breathing
• Regular exercises.
Sleep Conditions
Treatment of sleep conditions such as sleep apnea and narcolepsy may be different. Sleep apnea is usually treated, even with surgery machines, medications, lifestyle changes and in some cases is treated. In the treatment of narcolepsy, it is usually used with long-term drugs such as stimulants and some antidepressants.
PTSD  (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
If PTSD causes nightmares, it is important to get professional treatment. There are specific therapies that can be used in PTSD nightmares, such as image proofing therapy and visual kinesthetic dissociation. Image rehearsal therapy involves remembering nightmares and changing the ending when awake, so that the dream no longer threatens. Visual kinesthetic dissociation therapy is another technique used to rewrite traumatic memories into a new memory that is less traumatic. In addition to the treatment of anxiety and depression, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) can also be used to treat nightmares caused by PTSD.
A recent study has investigated the use of CBT for PTSD to help relieve traumatic recurrent nightmares. Participants received CBT for 20 weeks. The researchers found that after 20 weeks of CBT, 77 percent of respondents no longer had recurrent nightmares related to PTSDs. In the case of nightmares caused by PTSD, drugs may be used as part of a treatment protocol for the general disease. However, except for PTSD, the use of drugs in the treatment of recurrent nightmares is rare.
Lifestyle Changes
One way to reduce recurrent nightmares is to develop a healthy sleep habits by improving the bedtime routine. There are some ways to gain this sleep habit, and we can sort by:
• A sleep schedule should be created. A sleep schedule can help ensure adequate sleep during the night. If there are recurrent nightmares due to stress or anxiety, routine stability can be achieved.
• Turn off the electronics. Much of the better sleep is to make the body ready to sleep. It is known that the blue light from electronics makes it difficult to suppress the sleep hormone melatonin and keep it asleep.
• Avoid stimulants. Taking a stimulant before going to bed can make it difficult to fall asleep. Taking all stimulants such as alcohol, cigarettes and caffeine may adversely affect sleep.
• Preparing accommodation. Make sure the bed, pillow and blankets are comfortable. In addition, decorating the bedroom with familiar and relaxing elements can help create a safe space to fall asleep.
When recurrent nightmares are encountered, they may be forced back to sleep. Here are a few methods to calm down after awakening from a nightmare, we can list them as follows;
• Deep breathing exercises should be performed. When awakened or anxiously awakened, deep breathing, also called diaphragmatic breathing, can help slow down the heart rate and lower blood pressure.
• Talking about the dream. Sometimes talking to a wife or friend can help alleviate some of the anxiety it may cause. It can also be a good way of reflecting the fact that there is only one dream and no more.
• Rewriting the dream Part of the CBT involves rewriting thoughts and feelings. If the nightmare is rewritten to something less frightening or disturbing, it is likely to fall asleep again.
When to see a doctor?
If recurrent nightmares affect the ability to sleep well and cause anxiety or depression during the day, the doctor should seek help. If nightmares are concerned with stress, anxiety or depression, an appointment should be made by a healthcare professional for treatment and support. If nightmares are related to an underlying sleep situation, it may be necessary to perform a healthcare sleep study. A sleep study is usually a test performed in a night test room. The results of the test can help the doctor to determine if there is a sleep disorder that can cause nightmares. Recurrent nightmares usually have an underlying cause. Sometimes, this may be related to stress, anxiety, drug use and even substance abuse. If it is thought that recurrent nightmares affect the quality of life, a doctor or mental health professional should be consulted.
Source: poxox blogs

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