Planarias and Regeneration

What is Planaria? The planarias are many fresh water creatures with many characteristics, including many of their anatomical features and regeneration capabilities. They are small creatures that can be seen without help, but they are best seen under the microscope. Small parts of the planar can replace the missing body parts and create a complete individual. The animal is very popular in school laboratories and scientific research. Although many of them do not belong to the genus Planaria, multiple species are called planaries and are often used as planners in school laboratories.
External Features
As their name suggests, the planners have a flattened body. The colors change. They move with a shift and wavy movement. Their eyes are actually eye spots that can detect the intensity of the light but cannot create images. Planters usually have an ear-like protrusion on both sides of their body, beside their eyes. These projections are called the ears.

They do not play a role in hearing, but instead contain chemoreptors to detect chemicals. They are also sensitive to touch. Ear buckets help a planary find food.
The mouth of a planer is placed underneath his body. In many planes, a rod-like structure can be seen near the mouth and below the animal's surface. This is a tubular structure, leading to the rest of the digestive tract of pharynx. A planner extends the pharynx from the mouth to absorb the food. All planners have a pharynx, and the pharynx is fed by this method, even if it is not visible from the outside.

Digestion and Discharge Systems
A planary has a digestive system, an excretory system and a nervous system, but no respiratory system or circulatory system. Oxygen enters the body and passes to the animal cells by diffusion. The carbon dioxide leaves the cells and passes through the same surface to the body surface. The thinness of the body of the animal makes practical gas exchange without special structures.
Planters are carnivores and obtain their food as predators or cleaners. Muscle pharynx stretches out the mouth to get food and is then drawn to the body. The pharynx leads to a branched digestive system. Foods fed from food are spread along the wall of this canal and into animal cells. Indigestible food is released orally. The planes have no anus.
The body of a planer includes tubular structures called protonephridia containing flame cells. Flame cells contain strand-like structures called flagella. The impeller flagella allows the fluid to move out of the pores from the body. In this way, the wastes are removed from the planarist.
Nervous Systems and Muscles
Ganglion, Brain and Nerves : The head of the planar contains two connected ganglions. Ganglion is a mass of nerve tissue consisting of cell bodies of neurons. The cell body or nerve cell of a neuron is the site of the nucleus and organelles. The elongation of the cell body helps to deliver the nerve impulse.
The attached ganglia in the head of the planar are sometimes called brains, although they sometimes form a simpler structure than our brains.
Nerves extend from the brain through the body of the planar containing the other ganglia. Ganglions and nerves form a ladder-like nervous system.
Muscles and Movement : The body of the planer contains muscles that extend in several directions. The lower surface produces mucus and has many hair-like structures called feathers. These features allow the animals to move on surfaces using sliding motion when the eyelashes collide. Planarians also float in the water.
Reproductive System : Some planetary species breed both sexually and asexually. Others reproduce only asexually. Sexually reproducible species include both ovaries and testes and are therefore hermaphrodites. The sperm are exchanged between two animals during mating. The eggs are fertilized internally and put into capsules.
In asexual reproduction, the tail end of the planary is separated from the rest of the body. The tail develops a new head and the head of the animal develops a new tail. As a result, two people are produced.
Stem Cells:  Planters can reproduce missing parts due to the presence of diffuse stem cells. A stem cell is not specialized but can produce special cells when properly stimulated. Planary stem cells are known as neoblasts. The nature of neoblasts and the processes occurring as regeneration are activated and carried out.
People also have stem cells, but are more limited than planarists. Cells have a property known as potency and are classified as follows.
-Totypeotent stem cells can produce all types of cells in the body plus cells of the placenta.
-Pluripotent cells can produce all kinds of cells in the body, but they cannot produce placenta cells.
-Multiple cells can produce several types of special cells.
Single-cell cells can only produce one type of specialized cell.
The stem cells in the planters are pluripotents.
Renewal Ability : New individuals produced by dividing a particular planar into pieces are genetically the same as their ary parents . Even if the body divides into more than a hundred pieces, each piece becomes a complete animal. In the nineteenth century, a scientist named Thomas Hunt Morgan claimed that 279 planaries would produce new individuals.
It is not necessary to completely disassemble a planer to trigger regeneration. The rest of the body is left intact, and if the head is stopped in the middle, each half of the head regenerates the missing part. As a result, the animal ends with two heads. It takes about seven days or sometimes a little longer to refresh a planer.
Facts About Planetary Regeneration
If neoblasts are destroyed by radiation, a cut planar cannot reproduce missing parts and die within a few weeks.
If new neoblasts are planted in an irradiated animal, they regain their regeneration ability.
When the part of the plan is cut, the neoblasts go to the wound and form a structure called blastema. The production and differentiation of new cells occurs in this structure.
- Parts of the two parts of the body of the planet cannot replenish an entire animal. These areas are the head in front of the pharynx and eye spots.
The researchers are investigating signaling processes that tell neoblasts to migrate to the injured area and then produce a series of specific cells. Research is important to understand the behavior of stem cells in flat cells and perhaps in humans.
New Trends in Research: Genes and RNA
Cells release signal molecules to effect other cells. Molecules are usually proteins. They also do their work by joining receptors on the surface of other cells that are proteins. The incorporation of a signal molecule and receptor triggers a specific response in the host cell.
The DNA in the nucleus of a cell contains encrypted instructions to make the proteins needed by an organism, including those that act as signaling molecules. To make a particular protein, the code is copied to a messenger RNA molecule leading to ribosomes outside the nucleus. Here we make the protein of interest.
Each gene in a DNA molecule encodes a specific protein. Some planar researchers concentrate their studies on genes and RNA transcripts. These studies can offer new insights into the animal regeneration process.
Nb2 Cells
A research team from the United States has made some interesting discoveries about planner stem cells. The researchers have developed a new method for the identification and classification of planner neoblasts. As a result, they have discovered twelve types of neoblasts, including a type they call sub-type 2 or Nb2.
Nb2 is pluripotent and has a protein called tetraspanin on its surface. Protein is encoded in a gene called tetraspanin-1. Tetraspanin is actually the name of a protein family. In our bodies, there are some members of the family. In humans, proteins play a role in cell growth and growth.
Scientists have discovered the following facts about Nb2 cell behavior.
When the investigators cut the planners, they found that the population of Nb2 cells on both sides increased rapidly.
The cells isolated in laboratory equipment survived a small radiation treatment.
When the regulators are exposed to a dose of radiation that may be normally lethal, a single injected Nb2 cell is replicated and rescues the animals.
The transcriptome of a cell is the sum of all RNA transcripts. The transcriptome of Nb2 cells is different in normal life, after exposure to small lethal radiation and during regeneration. This shows that a different set of proteins is produced in each case.
Source: poxox blogs
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