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The 50,000-year-old stone tools found in Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, provide important information on early human growth.
Stone artifacts from the deep layer of Leang Burung 2. a- limestone core (Layer A); b- Limestone core (Layer A / B); c-chipped limestone chip (Layer I); d- polyhedral limestone (Layer A); E-Limestone Chip (Layer A)

Researchers, who wanted to expose new works and to review the previously determined dates, turned to the area known as Leang Burung 2 thirty years later.

According to research by Adam Brumm and his co-workers in the rock shelter of Leang Burung 2, on the island of Sulawesi and belonging to the Late Pleistocene, new evidence for early human occupation emerged.
Based on Australia's early settlement dates, the island of Sulawesi is assumed to be an important stepping stone for modern people in the 65,000-year-old expansion routes.

The Leang Burung 2 limestone rock shelter in Sulawesi, “Wallacea zam, the vast ocean region of continental Asia and Australia, has long been crucial to our understanding of early human emissions.

It was thought that the artifacts discovered in Leang Burung 2 in 1975 were made between 25,000 and 34,000 years ago. However, the excavations were over, without reaching the bedrock or the trace of culture.

Brumm and his teammates began to re-research the Leang Burung 2 region in order to be able to confirm what the old findings were and what years they belonged, as well as to go deeper into three meters and uncover different artifacts.
According to this study, the upper layers of the sedimentary layer belonged to different times. Therefore, the works found in 1975, contrary to the thought, could have been made at a much later date. However, reworked studies show that the lower layers of this layer are dated back to 50,000 years ago from archaic fine fragments and a group of coarse pebbles. The newly discovered works illuminate the cultural evolution of Indonesia and its surroundings and the history of human settlement.

The identity of those who made these old instruments is unknown, but it is believed that the first modern people performing 40,000 years of art in the nearby caves could have made the tools. At the same time, a separate population of older people or human relatives living in Sulawesi for a long time could have produced these works.

Researchers, the latest findings do not belong to the lowest layer. Inspections to be carried out in other time zones in the immediate surroundings may reveal both older works and fragments that can accurately confirm the period in which they were produced.

Adam Brumm says: or About 50,000 years ago we discovered archaeological evidence of hunter-gatherer people of the Ice Age, living in the Leang Burung 2 rock bunker. This ancient culture, as can be understood from both stone tools and related faunal relics, was completely different from the cultural understanding of modern hunter gatherers, which revealed a fine cave art about 40,000 years ago. Thus, perhaps, they could be not only members of a different culture, but also members of a different human species.

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