Major Military Operations of History: Barbarossa Operation

Get your tea in your cup: June 22, 1941 - December 1941, the German Armed Forces occupation of the Soviet Union only II. It is considered to be the biggest operation seen in all history, not World War II. Detailed summary of this is in our content.
The operation of the barbarossa is the name given by the German German wing to the invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on 22 June 1941. it is also the largest military operation in history that opens the eastern front of the Second World War. Over 4.5 million troops connected to the Axis states attempt to invade the Soviet Union over a 2,900 km frontline. In addition to these units, 600,000 motor vehicles and 625 thousand horses were added to the operation. The war on the barbarossa campaign was started on December 18, 1940, while the war was still on its nose. The German armies began almost uninterruptedly in the clashes, which started with the attack of the German armies on 22 June 1941 to the Soviet Union and continued until December 5, 1941. the preparations carried out in secrecy and the operation itself took almost a year. the red army, in front of the wehrmacht's powerful blows to the front of the mosque and leningrad.

the German progress on December 5, 1941 for the first time in front of Moscow is stopped. from then on, during the first three months of 1942, the situation on the front line: one after another, continued as the unrelenting clashes between the successive red army counter-attacks and the German army units trying to challenge them. As a result, the Hitler cannot reach the victory he hopes for, and the Red Army manages to stop the Wehrmacht's forward movement, albeit hard. German forces win tactically as well as brilliant victories. it succeeds in invading the vast territories of the Soviet Union in some of the most economically important regions, including Ukraine. However, the Soviet forces, which were the operative targets of the operation, could not be destroyed in the western part of the country and the removal of Moscow could not be realized. The forces linked to the German and its allies did not once again launch a widespread offensive in the front line until the middle of the following year. From the spring of 1942 onwards, the German progress will resume and provide deep and broad progress in the territory of the USSR. The failure of the barbarossa campaign led the hitler to the subsequent failed operations in the soviet territory, such as the siege of leningrad, the nordlicht operation, the battle of stalingrad and other operations in the soviet territory. the barbarossa operation was the largest military operation in military history in terms of the manpower involved and the results. failure, iii. Reich has been a landmark in history. most importantly, it opened the eastern front of the operation. on this front, more and more forces were waged at the beginning and in the process than all the world's historical battlefields. the barbarossa movement and the deadly viciousness of some of the biggest battles in the regions and cities under its influence, with its high losses and very difficult conditions for both sides, all in the 20th century and ii. it influenced the flow of history in the world war. Before the operation ...
german spread
after the German and Soviet forces invaded Poland in September 1939, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway in April 1940. In May of the same year, France attacked the Netherlands. paris fell on June 14 and france demanded a truce on 16 June. In February 1941, General Erwin Rommel and the African Corps (Africa Corps) began operations in North Africa.
soviet spread
When the German armies entered Paris, the Soviet government gave a nine-hour ultimatum to Lithuania, and the next day, on June 15, 1940, the Red Army invaded Lithuania. Estonian and Latvian occupied in a few days. In these three countries, elections were held on July 18 in the shadow of the Red Army, and the new government immediately decided to join the Soviet Union. lithuania joined the soviet union on August 3, in latvian on 5 august and estonia on 6 august. these three baltic countries joined the soviet union, the soviet union came to the common border with germany after poland.
He gave an ultimatum to Stalin, who had demanded the evacuation of Stalin from Romania, Besarabia, and Northern Bukovina. a day was granted. in fact, beserabia was adopted in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union in the German non-aggression pact, but there was no substance for bukovina. Germany, unable to bring oil by sea due to the British blockade, had to worry seriously about its close proximity to the Romanian oilfield, due to its dependence on oil imported from Romania. besabya and north bukovina were occupied by soviet troops on June 28, 1941.
As for the German-Soviet relations of 1939sak1940 ...
molotov-ribbentrop pact (german-soviet aggression pact)
Germany and the Soviet Union were signed shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939. the underlying hidden protocols, although it is apparently a non-aggression agreement, iii. the border between the reich and the soviet union involved sharing states. The pact was a surprise for the whole world because of mutual hostility and ideological contention between the two countries. As a result of the pact, relatively tight diplomatic relations and significant economic relations between Germany and the Soviet Union were formed. a trade agreement was signed between the two countries in 1940. The Soviet Union has relieved the economy, in a way, by this trade treaty. raw materials, mainly oil, were sold to Germany in return for military and industrial materials. this eased the negative effects of the British blockade on the German economy.
romania crisis
Another effect of the collapse of france emerged in the north of the balkans. hungary and bulgaria began to demand land from romania in the summer of 1940. especially in hungary, i. after the war, he tried to get back to his lost transylvania. a conflict in this region could lead to a very serious crisis. the subject is again based on romanian oil. followers of the developments, August 28, when the situation became a critical situation, first of all five panzer and three mechanized tombs, the Roman oil region on September 1 ordered to be ready for occupation. at the same time, his foreign minister joachim von ribbentrop and the foreign minister of italy sent galeazzo ciano to viana. The two foreign ministers adopted the mediation of the parties and the arrangement of the Hitler. according to this, the rumen left half of transylvania to hungary and south dobrudia to bulgaria. Italy and Germany gave a guarantee for the rest of Romania. This guarantee given to romania has undermined the stalin, fueling a process that makes relations between the two countries increasingly tense.
greece crisis
on October 28, 1940, the Italian forces crossed the border of greece-albania. Although they were defeated in a week, this situation endangered the German situation in the Balkans. Then the British forces took Limnos and Girit, and then the soldiers to Greece. the airports that came with this British military presence threatened the oil field in Romania.
a government coup in yugoslavia on the night of 26 March 1941 was the start of the German invasion in balkans. The preparations were carried out on 25 March with the order no. 25, and the German forces attacked the yugoslav border on the morning of 6 April 1941. In late April, all balkans were under German occupation. The four British divisions from northern Africa were evacuated from the sea.
berlin talks
the Soviet Union's occupation of the Baltic countries and Romania, as well as Germany's guarantee to Romania, continued to tighten relations in September 1940. both sides accused the other party of violating the third article of the German non-aggression pact, which required consultation. moreover the german foreign minister ribbentrop, 16 September in northern Norway to send the reinforcing forces to go through the finland to disturb the stalin'ı disturbed, these troops suspected that they will stay in finland. and the tripartite pact, signed on 27 September 1940, also created doubts.
however, in the initiative of Germany, negotiations were started on the membership of the soviet union in the mihsel pact.
ribbentrop, in order to eliminate all these tensions, wrote to stalin on 13 October, invited the soviet foreign commissioner vyacheslav molotov to berlin. Hitler was to meet with Molotov. in this meeting, the führer would be able to personally tell his conversations about the future form of relations between the two countries. The subject had also been roughly pointed out, "the division of the world between the four great totalitarian states."
this provocative offer was accepted by stalin and molotov came to berlin on 12 november 1940. the first side of the German side of the negotiations, England is defeated, in this case it is time to define the interests of the four states said. the vast territory of the British Empire had to be shared.
Hitler did not participate in the interviews before the first day. Molotov usually listened to the German side. afternoon hitler also participated in the talks. The attitude of molotov was very different from the German side, especially the hitler. the minutes of all the interviews except for one who wrote dr. Schmidt later recalled, "It was a succession to Hitler. One by one, no foreign visitor had ever spoken to him." that day and the following day molotov hitler asked for clear results about some regions. Firstly, it was Germany's request to withdraw its troops from Finland. hitler renewed that finland is not under occupation. then he asked the attitude of the soviet administration on finland, and Molotov replied "a compromise across besarabia". this compromise meant direct annexation to the right. "Turning to Stalin finland on the Baltic Sea seemed to be put on the head. molotov also bulgaria, asked what the results are in Romania and Turkey. First he wanted the withdrawal of the guarantee given to Romania by Italy and Germany. stalin could have additional land demands from romania, and this would give rise to a soviet border closer to the romanian oil zone.
Hitler took a break at this point. at dinner, the British bombers flew into the shelter when they began to bomb Berlin. In the shelter the ribbentrop took the pact's covenant text, which would turn into a quadruple pact with the participation of the soviet union. the draft of the treaty to be disclosed was a customary non-aggression pact text. they were secret protocols. especially the protocol describing the soil aspirations of each country was important. according to this, the territorial ambitions of the soviet union began from the middle of the national territory, until the south were hanging in the indian ocean. but the interests of the soviet administration were not the ocean of indian. west, baltic sea, balkanlar'a, and straits stretched to the Mediterranean. Molotov, in his words, even asked about Germany's stance regarding the neutrality of Switzerland, he was so interested in Europe.
Two weeks after his departure from Berlin, on 26 November, Stalin received a letter from the German embassy in Moscow, stating that he would join the quartet pact when certain conditions were met. The conditions of stalin were:
"The German troops and the Soviet Union will immediately withdraw from Finland. With the signing of a mutual aid agreement between the Soviet Union and Bulgaria and a long-term lease agreement, land and sea bases will be established by the Soviet Union within the framework of Istanbul and Çanakkale straits. safety in the straits will be provided in the next few months.
In the south of Batum and Baku, the region in general will be recognized as the center of the Soviet Union.
Japan will abandon coal and oil concessions in northern Sahinin.
also, in case of any difficulty regarding Turkey's straits four states are required to take military measures against this country. "
Germany did not respond to it.
both this document and the talks with molotov in berlin have shown that hitin is stalin's interest in europe. The Soviet Union seems to have sought to surround Europe from the north and south through the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. whereas Hitler wanted to remove the Soviet Union from Europe. on the other hand, the stalin also wants the middle east oil fields to be left to their sphere of influence. in the wake of these two developments, Hitler told the staff that the Soviet Union should be brought as early as possible.
Although commercial treaties set off a few open issues and boundaries in January 1941, controversy also began in central Europe.
german planning
In 1925, the Hitler claimed in his fight that the lebensraum needed by the German people should be sought in the land of the east, in which he would occupy part of the Soviet territory. The Nazi race ideology sees the Soviet Union as untermenschen slav peoples ruled by the Jewish Bolshevik elites. Hitler writes in my fight that "the fate of the German people was in eastern lands just as it was six hundred years ago, the end of the Jewish sovereignty in Russia would be the end of Russia as a state." further, he states that "a war against the ideals of panslav is inevitable." the victory that will be won, will determine the permanent masters of the world. on the other hand, he stated that if the Russians supported us, they would walk a part of the road with them. for this reason the official nazi policy envisages killing, driving and enslaving the Russians and other slavic peoples, and resettling those unmanned lands by German immigrants.

stalin's notorious reputation has contributed to the claims of the Nazis as well as their beliefs and achievements. During the great cleaning of the late 1930s, many talented and experienced officers, as well as thousands of civilians, were killed or imprisoned. After all, the Red Army fell into a serious nuisance about the referral and administration. Nazis often emphasized the atrocity of the Soviet regime in their aggressive propaganda targeting the Slavs. German propaganda claimed that the Red Army was preparing to attack them. therefore, they argued that their offensive against Russia was a preventive war.

Germany in the summer of 1940 in the raw material crisis and the possibility of a conflict in the Soviet Union and the Balkans with the increase in the number of hitler, began to look at the invasion of the Soviet Union as the only solution. In June, there was no concrete plan for attacking the Soviet Union, but a general of Hitler said that the victories in Western Europe had given him the freedom of movement to finally settle with Bolshevism. According to Hitler, this was his real and most important mission. nevertheless, the generals thought that invading western Russia would bring more burdens instead of comforting the German economy.

There were additional gains from the führer. When the Soviet Union was defeated, the lack of labor in the German industry would be eliminated because of the demobilization of most of the army. Ukraine would also provide stable agricultural resources. The use of soviet peoples as slave labor resources will significantly improve the geostrategic position of Germany. With the defeat of the soviet union, the allied states, especially the united kingdom, will have fallen from power. The German economy had to take control of Baku oilfield with the need for more oil. albert speer, the German Minister of Armed Forces and War Production, said during the interrogation of the post war that the urgent need for oil was the primary reason.
In the fall of 1940, high-ranking German officers prepared a memorandum on the dangers of the invasion of the Soviet Union. Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states suggested more burden for the German economy. another German officer states that the soviet bureaucracy makes the country powerless, that the occupation will not be a gain for Germany, and should not be disturbed by a weak Bolshevism.

Hitler rejected economic justifications and hermann Goren says, "Everybody always puts forward their economic concerns against the threat of war with Russia." He said. from then on he would close his ears to these kinds of speeches and had made up his mind. such views have now been forwarded to the general georg thomas. the general was preparing a report on the economic difficulties that the soviet union would invade. the main idea was that the operation would have negative effects on the economy unless the Soviet Union was completely occupied.

on the other hand, some of the German generals were against the military for military reasons. okh (oberkommando das heeres) commander-in-chief marshal walther von brauchitsch, the chief of the chief of staff, including the general franz halder and marshal gerd von rundstedt'in, as first of all the hitler'in, the Soviet Union is determined to attack Germany They did not believe it. even so, the defense was less risky than attacking Russia. marshal von rundstedt asked the hitler when he was attacking russia, "did you discuss what you took?"

Hitler's self-confidence increased due to his successes in Western Europe and his inability to do so in the winter war on the Red Army. he believed that victory would be won in a few months in the east. It was believed that the surrender of the soviet union would be a quick release. therefore, there was no need to prepare according to winter conditions. the troops had no winter clothes and when the attack started, they were not prepared for a long-term expedition. such that only 20% of the winter force was prepared for the army. this force, the end of the war to be left in the occupied territory, the force was not to participate in the operation. The topic of winter clothing, however, began to be interested in late August. however, according to general heinz guderian, this lack of preparedness for winter clothing was only in one part of the land forces, there was no problem for luftwaffe and waffen-ss.

Göring put forward a series of proposals for the economic order to be followed immediately after the invasion of the Soviet Union in early March 1941, by its green file name. large numbers of indigenous peoples in the invaded lands would be starved, thus providing plenty of food for Germany. then the immigrants who came to this land which was almost unmanned would settle as an elite class. In the Nüremberg hearings, sir hertley shawcross explained that several new regions were planned from the pre-established administrative regions in eastern Russia. The Nazi policy aimed at eliminating the Soviet Union politically in order to create the future generations of the future, depending on the way of living. "We'll just kick the door, that rotten structure will collapse by itself." In the short term, a new organization that will organize the exploitation of all the resources (including human resources) that could benefit Germany in the occupied soviet territory was created under the name of Reich Ministry by Alfred Reichscholz.
shortly before the invasion began, okh issued an order that extended directly to the divisions of the division. According to this order known as a commissioner, it was reported that the personnel who committed serious maltreatment against civilians and prisoners of war would not be given to a military court and that a senior commander would be discharged. even if he was to be given a penalty, this penalty could only be a disciplinary action. especially the political commissars were to be executed where they were seized.
planning
On December 5, 1940, Hitler approved the operational plans for the invasion of the Soviet Union, and the date of the operation was set in May 1941. Two weeks later, on December 18, Hitler issued his command to German high command, No. 21, which was to be called the Barbarossa operation. The first sentence of the order, "the German armed forces, the Soviet Union should be ready for an action to be brought quickly to the string." It shaped. The closed name given to the operation was inspired by the name of the third crusade commander in the 12th century and the frederick barbarossa, the holy roman emperor. Hitler's order No. 21 states that "preparations will be completed by 15 May 1941". this statement is often interpreted as predicting that the operation will begin in mid-May. in fact, 15 may, "the completion date of preparations". The purpose of the operation in the order, "the destruction of the large part of the Russian army in western Russia, and yet not put into war, war-ready forces, to prevent the withdrawal of large territory of Russia" is defined as.

the line that will be reached by the operation is shown as the line extending from the idyll river to arhangelsk. the text includes highly detailed planning of the main offensive lines. the main skeleton of the plan of operation was quite straight forward, mechanized-motorized elements of the central armies' group would cut the front line and proceed in the direction of smolensk, from this point to the south and to the north by dividing it into two branches, thus destroying the red army's forces without being allowed to retreat. hitler and staff, napoleon bonaparte'ın 1812 examining the misfortune of the expedition. the commander in chief of the Russian army, general mihail ivanovic kutuzov, without leaving any supply material that could benefit the french behind the back of the army by pulling back his forces did not lose much of its forces. moscow entered the french army, winter, while suppressing properties had faced intolerance. Napoleon had to retreat in order not to lose his army in this way. in order to avoid the same situation, the Hitler felt that the Red Army should not give the opportunity to withdraw.

the barbarossa operation was a combination of a north-up offensive in the direction of leningrad, the control of the oil fields behind the ukraine, which were important for the conquest of the symbolic significance of the Moscow and its economic strategy. Hitler and his generals could not agree on which issues mattered first. however, Germany should concentrate on the issue of fuel and a compromise decision on priorities. Hitler discussed with his generals many times during the planning of the barbarossa operation in 1940-1941, and repeated his order, "first in Leningrad, second in the Donets region, and third in Moscow." Hitler's attitude towards Moscow changed over time or seemed to be so. At the meeting on 5 December 1941, which approved the operational plans, Moscow maintained that it was not important and that the main thing was the destruction of the life force of the Soviet Union. however, on the 18th of December 1941, when the order no. 21 was issued, the taking of the city would be "a definite economic and political victory". Hitler was now in a hurry about the invasion of the East that he had wanted for a long time. When the Soviet Union was defeated, he believed Britain would seek peace. General Franz Halder noted in his diary that Britain would lose its hope of victory by defeating the Soviet Union.
As in the case of the German expedition to France, there was a divergence between the German generals in the eastern campaign on the strategy. the generals of the traditional strategy proposed to destroy the soviet main forces immediately after the border and to dispose of them, but then proceed to the inside of Russia. during these sieges and battles, they considered that panzer groups and infantry corps were required to participate in operations in coordination. for them, moving forward into Russia without destroying most of the red army in this way would bring risks to it. The opinion of general heinz guderian, general hermann hoth and commander of many armored units, was also supported by the idea that panzer groups should move to the depths as much as possible in the direction of Moscow, and that the operations of the siege of the red army units should be left behind by the infantry corpses. The general guderian wanted the panzer groups to advance at least up to the Dnieper line. Hitler adopted the idea of ​​traditional strategy. nevertheless, the red army forces were targeted to be destroyed in the west of the Dnieper. For this purpose, the infantry corpses were shorter-elongated and the panzer groups would perform deeper siege operations. in this way the two strategies became integrated in a way.

The wehrmacht forces allocated for the eastern expedition were organized as a group of three armies.

The northern armies under the command of marshal wilhelm ritter von leeb will attack in the general direction of leningrad, covering the northern flank of the operation from eastern prussia. a secondary offensive arm will also draw a slight arc and move to the east of Minsk. Hitler's command No. 21 stipulated the capture of leningrad. the assault of the northern armies after this stage would be in the general direction of Moscow.
the group of central armies under the command of the marshal fedor von bock will attack in the general direction of poland, brest-litovsk in the soviet section and then north of the pripyat marsh.
The southern group of armies under the command of the marshal gerd von rundstedt will move from the southern part of Poland to a line running in the general direction of the kiev, between the dniester and the Dnieper rivers. Romanian troops participating in the operation will attack from Besarabya in the direction of Odessa.
In addition to the wehrmacht troops, 18 fin divisions under the command of marshal gustav mannerheim, 12 rumen divisions under the command of marshal ion antonescu, 3 hungarian brigades, 2 slovakian divisions, then 3 italian divisions, one spanish division and one voluntary association will join the operation.

the tasks given to the northern armies group, the baltic states will walk to leningrad, the lake of ladoga and the petsamo nickel mines will be seized, the murmansk railway line will be cut and the non-defensive soviet ports in the north sea will be controlled. The operative targets of the southern armies' group are the destruction of the red army forces in the west of the Dnieper River, the advancement of Kiev through Ukraine, and the seizure of the Donets basin in which 60% of the Soviet industrial production is collected.
the group of central armies was to split the soviet fortified positions in brest-litovsk, to attack in the general direction of roslavl - elnya - smolensk, to prevent the reorganization of the red army.
german preparations
the date of commencement of the action will be decided on May 15, the preparations will be completed. yet hitler, yugoslavia, the German opposition to the military coup and the occupation of albania against the invasion of albani against the decision to intervene in the progress of the armies of the balkan was launched and the barbarossa operation was postponed. Almost all historians and many soldiers are of the opinion that this postponement decision leads to the failure of the barbarossa operation. but that was just one of the reasons. the other was the long duration of spring in Russia in 1941. The rainfall continued in June, making it impossible for the heavy vehicles to cross the main roads in the west of the country. General Halder also states that climatic conditions are not suitable before 22 June.

the Germans, before the end of the war on the front of the Balkans, began to gather their troops as masses at the Soviet border. In the first three weeks of February 1941, a force of 680 thousand people was piled up at the Romanian-Soviet Union. For the offensive to the Soviet Union, 3.5 million German soldiers were gathered at the military soviet border of 1 million Allies. Many air reconnaissance missions have been launched on the Soviet lands, and a tremendous amount of material has collapsed across the border. these developments have taken the Soviet administration off guard. this was largely because Stalin thought that Germany would not attack Russia in the next two years after the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. on the other hand, he believed that Germany would not open a second front without concluding his struggle with Britain. not only stalin, but almost all the Soviet generals were sure about it, even the German generals. The general guderian writes in his memoirs that he was disappointed when he learned that there would be a front in the east.

spy richard sorge, the exact date of the German offensive stalin'e conveyed. The Swedish cryptoanaists, led by arne beurling, also reached the assault history. but the sorcerer and other intelligence elements reported different offensive dates. On the other hand, the information you obtained from the British intelligence on the ultra reported the start date of the invasion of the Soviet Union a few months before 22 June 1941. The two German operations for the British invasion were used as misleading information about the siege on the Soviet border. sea ​​movement and hailisch operation. False preparations were made in Norway and the Channel Channel. all of this was supported by the collection of ships, the reconnaissance flights of the air elements. Some details of these fake infestation plans were deliberately leaked.

Hitler and his generals agreed with the three separate army groups on the strategy of invading certain cities and regions of the Soviet Union. the main German coup was to be carried out on the historical invasion line, on the mosque approach of napoleon. the group of northern armies will advance to the northern part of Russia over the baltic states and reduce leningrad. the group of central armies will advance to smolensk and march from the central part of western russia to moscow. the group of southern armies will attack Ukraine, which is densely populated and has a high agricultural potential, will take the kiev and continue towards the east before proceeding towards the east, towards the steppes of southern Russia and the Caucasus, which is rich in oil deposits.
hitler, okw (oberkommando der wehrmacht / german armed forces command) and various commands do not agree on the main objectives. During the preparations of the barbarossa operation, okw's overall advocated the direct imposition of Moscow. but the hitler insisted on the idea of ​​seizing the rich resources of the ukraine and the baltic countries before gathering forces around the soviet capital. the first delay occurred in the postponement of the start date of the operation from mid-May to June 1941. this delay was necessary in a way, since it was an early start of the year's mud season in Russia. general guderina, is a very rainy month of May, in his discovery trips, the bug river and arms in the late May, even in the late observations observed that observed. however, many times were lost because strategic consensus was not established between hitler and okw.
soviet preparations
soviet military intelligence, especially in germany, had established a very widespread and effective news reception network. As a result, they were able to monitor developments in the barbarossa operation. in an article by the soviet union marshal, andrey greçko, they stated that they were aware of the final form of the plan for the operation of the barbarossa, on 11 December 1940, 11 days after the rat's approval. General Filipp Golikov, the president of the group, had informed the Stalin that in December the Hitler had decided to attack the Soviet Union, based on this document and other findings. stalin refused to believe the document, arguing that every document could be falsified. he asked the golikov to develop an intelligence system to ensure that hitler was not bluffing and that he was really preparing for a war in the east. the arrangements of general golikov really went down to extremely fine details. first they followed the sheep in Europe. with the agents placed at key points, they gathered regular information about the sheep presence, breeding and slaughtering in Europe, followed the movements of mutton prices. they wanted to see if there was a different development in sheep slaughtering in Europe. If meat prices drop rapidly, the amount of cuts is increasing. the increase in slaughter will not only increase the supply of meat, but also the sheep skin. this will show that the German army is preparing a large scale for winter clothing. on the other hand, the cloths used for lubrication of guns and normally burned or buried were secretly collected by Soviet agents and sent to the Soviet Union in various ways. the analysis of the oil in these glands was used to examine whether the oil required for the colder climate was used. In addition, fuel samples used in Germany were also used. General Golikov had calculated that when Hitler decided to attack Russia, his army would have to meet the needs of winter clothing, oil and fuel. however, the Hitler assaulted the army before preparing it for the winter conditions, forcing the majority of the Red Army to be destroyed before the winter suppressed, thereby losing its military power and the collapse of the Soviet government. After all, at the Politburo meeting held on June 21, 1941, Gru reported that Germany had no preparation for a war in the East. in fact, they knew that the German forces had built a large army of soldiers and weapons in the eastern boundaries, the numbers, commanders, and deployment areas of a large part of the German divisions. however, this information was not considered a preparation for war.
soviet preparations
In a speech to the generals in the Soviet Union in December, Stalin said that they would attack Germany's country by mentioning the writings of Hitler in Mein Kampf, that they should be ready to repel this attack at all times, and that Hitler thought that the Soviet Union needed four years to be ready. He stated. for this reason, "we must be ready before." and "we will try to delay the war for another two years." He said.

stalin did not consider many warnings of its intelligence services that Germany was preparing to attack. on the other hand, he saw the information coming from the British intelligence as an attempt to make war between Germany and the Soviet Union. According to the documentary series battlefield prepared by the British BBC, Hitler stalin told that the units gathered on the eastern borders of the Reich were gathered in this region in order to avoid an attack from the west. however, on the 13th of june the soviet union of london ambassador i. m. mayski, minister of foreign affairs a. had an interview with eden. In this meeting, it was discussed how Britain could support the Soviet military force if a war broke out between the Soviets and Germany in the near future. The topics discussed are the direct operation of the British air force, the sale of military equipment, and the coordination between the fighting forces and activities of the two countries. this meeting has become one of the first steps of the cooperation between America and Britain and the Soviet Union.

Stalin and some senior Soviet officers thought the Hitler would avoid a two-front war at any cost. I. in world war, germany had fallen into error and the result was a defeat. therefore, they calculated that Germany would not attack the Soviet Union in the West, while still in conflict with Britain. on the other hand, the only way of success that promises success in terms of churchill is that America opens up a more effective war in Germany and opens a front in Germany in the west, the Soviet Union joins the war in Germany, in short, to open a front in Germany. It was reduced. undoubtedly the stalin could see it.
nevertheless, the Soviet Union was preparing for a possible war with Germany. with the baltic countries, half of Poland and the introduction of besarabia and north bukovina into the soviet territory, the line of stalin was now the most important defensive line in the west of the Soviet Union, but far behind the border. instead, a new line of defense, called the Molotov line, was started along the newly formed western borders. however, the construction of this line of defense was not only very slow, but also very close to the border in some areas and was being built without obstruction measures. these positions were easily observed by the German, the positions and orientations of the fire points, in short, the fire system could be analyzed. on the 22nd of June, moreover, most of these blockhouses were quickly suppressed by German artillery. At the start of the general offensive, the Molotov line of defense had not yet been completed.

stalin, on may 5, 1941 in Moscow, the military academy graduates, "a war with Germany is inevitable," he said. "If comrade Molotov succeeds in postponing the war for two or three months, it would be a good chance for us, but you should be able to take measures to increase the tenacity of our troops." General Georgi Jukov, who also served as the head of the Soviet General Staff, sent a general directive to all military headquarters stating that Germany was the most likely enemy.

All the forces and the three fleets of the Soviet fleet are the first strategic level in the west, which is bounded by the German military upper authority, in the west, to the border with Germany. These divisions are a total of 170 tanks, mechanized, cavalry and infantry divisions. 56 of the divisions were located very close to the western border. the remaining 114 divisions were behind. However, on June 13, 1941, these troops were also ordered to move closer to the border. troops in other military regions were given the same-day command to move west. these unity commanders were not initially informed about new deployments. for example, all forces in the ural military region were moved to the west.
In contrast to the views of Hitler and Okw, the Soviet Union was not weak at all. The rapid industrialization of the Soviet economy in the 1930s had led to the second place in industrial production after the US. this level of industrial production was equal to that of Germany. the war industry has grown steadily, and in the pre-war years the economy was regularly directed to the war industry. In the early 1930s, the Red Army had developed a highly advanced military action theory and was introduced in 1936 by field regulations.

According to taylor and proektor, the soviet forces in the western regions were weak with 2.6 million according to the forces of the German and its allies. The total number of forces under the Soviet Union is 5 million. 2.6 million of these forces are located in the west of the country, 1.8 million in the east, and the remaining part is in different locations or in education. these figures are the figures for the forces in the first strategic tier and do not include the forces in the second strategic tier, which is narrower. viktor suvorov writes that the 77, which constitutes the second strategic tier, is a force of uniformity. the second-tier forces began to be referred to the western parts of the country on the orders they took on June 13, and were still on their way to reinforce the forward lines when the German offensive began. the reinforcement of the front line with these units would be completed on 10 July. total german and allied forces is a general figure. of the German troops, 3.3 million troops participated in the operation, but some of them did not participate in the first operation as reserve troops. in the meantime, a force of about 600,000 was provided by the allies of Germany, but they joined the operations later.

in this case the total number of hammer forces available in the barbarossa operation is over 3.9 million. on June 22, when the offensive began, the German forces had established a supremacy along the front with 98 divisions, including 29 armored divisions. Ninety percent of the troops were motorized forces and attacked a 1,200 km front line from the baltic sea to the Carpathians. nkvd border units and soviet 1st tier divisions took place against this general attack. the first strategic cadres were deployed in the western special military zone just behind the front. it was planned that these advanced troops would be attacked after the completion of the settlement in the regions of the strategic secondary level, ie about two weeks later. 41% of these units were located in a 200 km long line close to the border and fuel, materials and railway wagons were collected in the vicinity of this region due to the order of the Red Army.

also the war continued as the Red Army became increasingly powerful. however, in the years of 1941, a slight numerical superiority was maintained in terms of manpower. According to mikhail meltyuhov, the total number of red army personnel at the beginning of the war is 5.774.211. 4.605.321 of these numbers are ground forces, 475.656 of them are air force, 353.752 are navy, 167.582 are border guards and 171.900 are nkvd units.

however, in some important weapon systems, the soviet numerical superiority is evident. for example, the tanks have a large numerical advantage. there were 23.106 tanks in the red army at this time, 12.782 in the five military areas in the west. The total number of tanks in the German armored units is 3.200. on the other hand, most of the vehicles in the newly formed German divisions were French vehicles captured in the france campaign and were inadequate for an operation in the east. Three of these five military areas to the west are opposite the forces of the outcry. however, the general supply, maintenance and vigilance situation is quite weak. ammunition and radios were inadequate. many unions did not have sufficient means of transport to provide complementary supply beyond the main ammunition and fuel stocks.
In fact, from 1938 onwards, the Soviet senior administration distributed armored vehicles to the infantry divisions to use as an infantry support weapon. but after the experience of the winter war, and with the observations based on the france expedition of the German armed forces, they developed the concept of German armored unity to their armed forces and began to collect a large number of armored vehicles within the large armored divisions and corpses. this restructuring was partially completed at the dawn of the barbarossa campaign. furthermore, the mechanized corpses did not have enough tanks to be given in accordance with their structural forces.

wehrmacht has a total of 5,200 tanks, of which 3,350 have been allocated to the eastern front of the barbarossa. This shows that the Red Army has a superiority of 1 to 4 in the tank. the best soviet tanks t-34s are the most modern tanks in the world, and the kv series is the best armored combat vehicle. the most advanced soviet tank models t-34 and kv-1 were not present in sufficient numbers at the beginning of the war, but only 7.2% of the total of red armored armored. but this is technically superior to the 1861 modern tank, 1.404 German panzer III and panzer IV, which are the middle class tanks. nevertheless, in the use of such effective weapons of the red army, lack of training and experience, there was no radio in the tanks.

The soviet numerical advantage of heavy weapons was compensated by the much better combat effectiveness and education levels of German troops. Most of the Soviet Corps commanders and other senior officers were removed from the army by the great cleansing of stalin in 1936-1938. Only six of the 90 generals arrested, 36 of the 180 commanders, and 7 of the 57 corps commanders were able to survive. A total of about 30 thousand red army personnel were executed. more than that, they were driven to siberia and politically reliable officers were replaced. three of the five marshal and two-thirds of the corps and division commanders were shot. this led to the fact that the younger, less experienced officers came to the large unit of command. for example, in 1941, 75% of officers were in the place where they had been in less than a year. an average soviet corps commander was 12 years younger than the average German division commander. these officers were very reluctant to take the initiative and were not adequately trained in their duties.

The number of aircraft also has the supremacy of soviet. however, soviet aircraft were mostly old-style aircraft. the Soviet artillery also lacked modern fire control techniques. soviet air elements in the first days of the operation, instead of spreading on the ground in order to be close to the regular rows, luftwaffe pilots made them easy targets. moreover, the Soviet air force banned the lowering of German reconnaissance aircraft, despite hundreds of reconnaissance flights of the luftwaffe on the Soviet airspace before the operation.

In the first phase of the war on the eastern front, the soviet war force was severely limited due to the lack of modern aircraft. soviet predator fleets included a number of old-style aircraft such as polikarpov i-15 and polikarpov i-16. The models such as mig-3, lagg-3 and yak-1, one of the successful fighter models of the Soviet air force, were produced in 1941 for less than a year. but when these planes began to take part in the operations from September 1941, the messerschmitt bf 109 or later model was weak as well as the German fighter aircraft fw 190. There were several models of radio, but it was not used enough to make it work. the weak performance of the soviet air force in the winter war that clashed with Finland increased the confidence of the luftwaffe and ultimately dominated the soviet airspace. on the other hand, standard flight trainings were accelerated for the German airstrike in 1942 or later. but soviet pilot training was too much. Flight training was accelerated and shortened by the order of the Soviet Defense Commissariat on 22 December 1940 and numbered 0362. the soviet air force had 201 mig-3 and 37 mig-1 aircraft ready to use on 22 June 1941. However, only four pilots have been trained to use these aircraft.
The Red Army troops were unprepared and disorganized to meet a general offensive. there were not enough transport vehicles to facilitate and accelerate their referral to any conflict zone. Although the Red Army had many and effective guns, there were no ammunition in some batteries. In most of the artillery elements, there were no tools to move the balls. tank units were rarely well-equipped and lack of training as well as logistical support was not enough. the overall supply and maintenance standards were very poor. Unions, ammunition, refueling, replacement fuel stock, without change and replenishment personnel were put into battle. in most cases, the troops were destroyed in a single conflict or unable to fight. the army was in the process of reorganizing the tank troops in large armored corps and was also scattered.

in short, the red army seemed at least equally powerful to the German army on paper in the middle of 1941. however, the reality was much more noticeable, inadequate officers, partial material deficiencies, inadequate means of transport and poor training in replenishment and integration work, have brought serious disadvantages for the Red Army.
Just a week after Hitler gave his unofficial approval for the barbarossa operation, British intelligence received clues in August 1940 on German plans for a general offensive against the Soviet Union. Stalin naturally did not trust this information from Britain, and thought it was a deception, a game that was being prepared to bring the Soviet Union into the war. stalin's own intelligence agency, and american intelligence, warned of a general German offensive in the spring of 1941. but stalin did not consider these warnings. he generally accepted the possibility of an offensive and carried out serious preparations, but decided not to incite the Hitler provocation. he also had little faith in the molotov-ribbentrop non-aggression treaty, which was signed two years ago and was not based on realistic foundations. he believed that Britain was trying to spread such rumors to trigger a war between the Soviet Union and Germany. as a result, the red army border units were never vigilant. in some cases (although on April 10th a partial vigilance had been put in place), the offense required jurisdiction to respond. therefore, when the German offensive began, they were completely unprepared.

When the German forces attacked, an enormous Soviet military force had been gathered at the western borders. these forces, however, became very vulnerable as a result of tactical doctrine changes in the Red Army. In 1938, with the encouragement of general dimitri pavlov, the line defense system was adopted with other nations. in this defense order, the troops are spread along a line with little depth and are not allowed. The infantry divisions reinforced with a tank element, including the staff, will be buried in shelters to form dense fortified belts. then the france expedition came to be surprising. the French army was considered one of the most powerful armies in the world, but was defeated in six weeks. the soviet analysis on this was based on incomplete information, and the collapse of france was explained by the lack of line defense and the lack of armored reserves.

the soviet military region is determined to avoid this mistake. As a solution, infantry divisions would now be transformed into large organizations instead of being buried in heavily fortified defense lines. Most of the tanks in hand were arranged as 29 mechanized corpses, each with more than 1,031 tanks, as standard. When the Germans attacked, the armored pioneer forces would strike and destroy the German mechanized corps. he would then defeat infantry troops, defenseless German infantry troops in the march of approach. The Soviet left wing in Ukraine was strongly reinforced as the strategic siege force, and after leaving the German southern armies out of the war, it would clear the troops in this section by drawing a wide arc into the interior of Poland and the German central armies' group. the red army, after the destruction of the besieged German armies began to attack in Europe.
theory of the Soviet offensive plans
Immediately after the general attack on the Soviet Union, the Hitler asserted that the red army was making extensive preparations to attack Europe. thus, he wanted to justify the German attack as a preventive war. After the war, this view has been put forward by some wehrmacht leaders like wilhelm keitel.

This thesis has been re-constructed in the 1980s with some of the events being examined indirectly and treated as evidence. This analysis concludes that the red army troops have been piled up in the western boundaries proposed by the marshal Jukov and secretly enacted by the marshal aleksandr al-Vasilevsky and Marshal Nikolai Vatutin. accepted operative targets were to isolate Germany from its allies, especially from Romania. romania, due to its oil reserves, is a vital source country for germany to sustain the war.

According to Viktor Suvorov, Stalin used Hitler as a tool against the West. Suvorov describes Hitler's role as an icebreaker. stalin's thought that the aggressive plans of the hitler towards Europe would provide ground for their plan. the soviet union would attack Europe when the capitalist countries were sufficiently worn out in their conflict. to this end, adolf hitler was provided with important political support and material. the red army, meanwhile, was preparing to liberate the entire european occupation of germany. suvorov, like hitler, suggests that the German barbarossa operation was a preemptive attack, which benefited from the gathering of Soviet troops at the border in 1941. Some sections such as mihail meltyuhov also oppose the thesis that suvorov is preparing for an offensive of the soviet union. for them both sides were preparing for the attack, but this was totally independent of being a response to the preparations of the other party.

Although these arguments were supported by some historians and attracted public attention in some countries, they were not generally accepted by Western historians. from here on, I will explain the order of combat.
pivot forces
The group of northern armies under the command of general wilhelm von leeb consists of two armies, the 1st air squadron and the fin army, accompanying the 4th panzer army of general erich hoepner.
a group of central armies under the command of the general fedor von bock, the 4th army under the command of günther von kluge, the general gov It consists of.

The group of southern armies under the command of general gerd von rundstedt is composed of the 1st panzer group and the 5th air fleet, consisting of the three armies of the European allied forces and general paul ludwig ewald von kleist. The missing troops consisted of two Hungarian, two Romanian army and Hungarian armies.
samuel w. According to the study of mitcham, wehrmacht brought a force consisting of a total of 148 divisions to the eastern front. 19 of these divisions are panzer and 15 are motorized units. The weapons brought to the front are 3.350 panzer, 7.184 ball and mortar with various diameters, 2.770 aircraft, 6 thousand motor vehicles and 625 thousand horses. the total number of soldiers is approximately 2.5 million.

The general guderian stated that 145 divisions were reserved for the eastern expedition while the number and distribution of the total division of the wehrmacht. According to guderian, the total division of the wehrmacht is 205. The distribution of these divisions included a division in Denmark, 39 divisions in the West, 12 divisions in Norway, 7 divisions in the Balkans and 2 divisions in North Africa. there is a force of 145 divisions. Regardless of the number of divisions allocated to the eastern expedition, historians and German generals agree that the garrisons in the west and Norway are much larger than necessary. essentially there are 10 panzer divisions in the hands of the wehrmacht. but before the barbarossa operation, a panzer procession was created by the hitler's orders and new panzer divisions were created. Thus, the number of panzer divisions increased to 21. German generals tried to oppose the practice, arguing that the striking power of the panzer divisions was thus weakened. however, Hitler thought that for Russia's vast land and the ability of red army units to be surrounded by movements in this vast field, more armored divisions would be required. on the other hand, it was argued that the reduction of the number of panzer in divisions would be eliminated by the red army's technological backwardness and by the presence of more advanced tanks instead of light tanks in panzer divisions. indeed, almost all the pz-i and pz-ii light tanks within the panzer units were replaced with pz-iii and pz-iv mid-range tanks.
soviet forces
When the German offensive against the Soviet territory began on June 22, 1941, the Red Army was organized on four fronts in the European territory of the Soviet Union. In the Soviet military practice the front is a military organization in the setting of a group of armies in the German land forces.

When the German offensive began, Jukov's orders were immediately transformed into the northern front of the Leningrad military district, the northwestern special military zone to the northwest front, the western special military district to the western front, and the special military district of Kiev to the southwestern front. The special military region of Odessa was reorganized as the southern front on June 25, 1941.

The first strategic management was established on July 10, 1941, under the command of Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, as the strategic management of the Northwest, under the command of Marshal Semyon Timoshenko under the command of the Western Strategic Management and the Marshal Semyon Budyonni.

the forces of the northwest military region consist of two wings. the northern façade under the command of general markian popov and the northwest façade under the command of the general fyodor kuznetsov. as well as the naval forces, the northern and Baltic fleets are also attached to this administration.
the forces of the western military region consist of the western front of general grigoryevich pavlov.
the southwestern military region consists of the southwest front of the general mihail kirponos and the southern façade under the command of general ivan tyulenev. the Black Sea Fleet is also under the command of the military zone.
In addition to the armies of the front, another six armies are located in the western part of the Soviet Union. these armies were divided into 18 as the army, the 19th army, the 20th army, the 21st army, the 22nd army and the 24th army as independent units and the stavka reserve group. they were directly connected to stalin. and we're moving to the invasion ...
opening phase (June 22, 1941 - July 3, 1941)
The important cities in the Soviet occupation in Poland were taken under intense fire by the artillery artillery at 3:15 am on June 22nd, 1941. It is difficult to determine the forces of the parties in this first phase of the operation. Most of the figures of the German forces include the elements of discretion which are allocated to the eastern front but do not yet enter into battles. on June 22, roughly three million wehrmacht soldiers took action against the Soviet troops, which were slightly smaller than them and spread across the border. approximately 3.2 million German land soldiers participated in the battle or were allocated for the eastern campaign. about 500 thousand rumen, hungarian, slovak and croatian and italian military joined the german forces. on the other hand, on 22 June, finland launched its own war against the soviet union. The Finnish forces did not attack leningrad or the other targets of the German army, nor did they engage in destructive activities such as the Jewish massacre. There is also a Spanish division among the apostles. The blue divisor is a sequence of volunteer volunteers. The contribution of Germany's allies has generally not been effective until later stages. The German offensive was a complete surprise. stavka was warned by various reports of German troops advancing towards the border, and at around 00:30 he ordered the border troops to be warned that the war was close;

luftwaffe has intensified its activities to determine the discovery elements for the destruction of soviet troops, gathering areas, temporary storage tanks and airports. The task of the main elements of the luftwaffe was to neutralize the Soviet air force. The first day of the operation this task was not fully fulfilled. in fact, the soviet air force was keeping the planes in bulk rather than spreading them to different airports, and therefore the aircraft were easy targets. luftwaffe claims to have destroyed 1,489 soviet aircraft on the first day of the operation. Hermann Göring, the chief of the Luftwaffe, did not trust these figures and ordered them to be controlled. the siege of soviet airfields that were later discovered on the wreckage of more than 2 thousand soviet aircraft were destroyed. luftwaffe lost 35 airplanes in the first day's air clashes. The Germans claim that they destroyed 3,100 Soviet aircraft within the first three days of the operation. in reality the losses of the Soviet aircraft are higher. According to the Russian historian Viktor Kulikov, the losses were 3.922. Regardless of the figures regarding the Soviet losses, the luftwaffe will ultimately take over the dominance of the air on the entire eastern front and will have an advantage over 1941. in this case, luftwaffe was able to mobilize most of its fleets to support the ground forces.
In various sources, it is claimed that the Soviet troops did not react to the German offensive and avoided using weapons. it is claimed that this was based on the order of provocation from the supreme command. Stalin, at the beginning of the German general offensive, believed that this was not a real offensive. general i.v. tyulenev met general jukov in the kremlin very shortly after the start of the German offensive, and recounts his memoirs of the three wars he later wrote in his book. General Jukov told him, "We have informed Stalin, but for some reason he doesn't want to believe it, he stubbornly believes it is the prostitution of the German generals." He said. viktor suvorov describes the situation in fronts,

"anti-aircraft guns do not fire on German aircraft, Soviet fighter planes were not allowed to drop German planes, the first strategic step soldiers were taken bullets."
on the other hand, in many places, the bridges were not thrown and the German forces took over. therefore, the German forces were not forced to cross the river. The Soviet troops were scattered across the border, defensive preparations were inadequate.

however, the Soviet troops did not remain fully defended after the German general offensive had begun, and some troops attacked without taking orders from the supreme commander. northwest side of the northwest side of the eastern prussia on the morning of June 22 was removed from the attack. On the evening of that day stavka had received orders from this direction, but the offense was continuing throughout the day. some units and some air elements also launched an offensive according to the order from the top commander. the western front, the city of polandy attacked in the direction of Suvalki. also in Finland the hanko naval base occupied 19 candidates from Finland. on the other hand, while the majority of the aircraft connected to the Soviet air force were destroyed on the ground, some fleets flocked to certain targets in the first days of the war. 487 aircraft, for example, connected to the northern and Baltic navies, attacked the Finnish airports and military facilities in Konigsberg on June 22nd. in the south on 26 june, the oil plants in romania were bombed. after several days of bombardment, oil production has fallen by half.
north armies group
Two Soviet Soviets have been deployed in front of the group of German northern armies. in this part the wehrmacht would attack the 4th panzer group with a power of 600 tanks and the offshore line of two soviet armies. The operative goals of the 4th panzer group are the succession of the neman river and the daugava river, which are the two biggest obstacles in the leningrad approach. German tank troops reached a neman within a day and made a split of 80 km. near raseiniai soviet 3rd and 12th mechanized corpses launched a counterattack with 300 tanks. In the four-day clashes, the German forces besieged and destroyed the Soviet troops. Red Army armored units suffered shortage of fuel and ammunition during this time and could not coordinate properly. At the end of the first week the Soviet mechanized corpses lost 90% of their forces. The panzer groups passed the daugava river near daugavpils. At this stage, the German forces were now at the distance of the leningrad. however, due to the deterioration of the supply situation, the hitler ordered the panzer groups to stop the forward movement until the infantry troops came from behind. it took more than a week to wait for infantry troops to wait for the soviet command to bring reinforcements to the leningrad and luga rivers. the Soviet anti-Soviet uprising, which began in Lithuania on 22 June, made the situation of the Red Army troops in the region even more difficult and the next day the independence of Lithuania was declared. an estimated 30 thousand Lithuanian rebels, along with the Lithuanian red army elements, joined with the Soviet forces. when the German forces moved further north, in Estonia an armed resistance against the Soviet forces had begun. the 18th army of the german army reached the bay of finland, august 7, 1941, the estonian war ended.


central armies group
the soviet armies, opposite the German central armies group, were the third army, the 10th army and the 11th army. the soviet armies, bialystok, settled on a ledge extending to the German lines. the eastern part of this region extends to minsk, the capital of the soviet socialist republic of Belarus, and is a very busy railway and road junction. The aim of the two groups of panzer groups under the command of the central armies' general heinz guderian and general hoth was to contact minsk in order to block the withdrawal of the soviet forces in the pocket of bialystok. Arsenal of the two soviet fronts was split by the third panzer group in the north of the pocket and the progressive panzer passed the neman. In the meantime, the bug river, which formed the border of the Polish USSR in the south, was passed by the 2nd Panzer group without any resistance. the Soviet positions immediately behind the river were empty in most areas. While the panzer groups continued their forward movement, the infantry armies of the central armies' group attacked the Soviet forces on the bialystok ledge and the red army forces in the region were besieged.

the beginning of the soviet union in moscow did not fully grasp the weight of the catastrophe. marshal timoshenko gave orders to launch a general counter-attack on all soviet forces. but the destruction of the supply and ammunition depots and the co-ordination of the troops due to the collapse of communication prevented the success of the attacks. General Zhukov signed the No. 3 order of the Defense Commissariat, which was later to be signed under Stalin's pressure. it is ordered to start an offensive against the Red Army. in this order, troops "siege of enemy groups in the vicinity of Suwalki, and destruction of suwalki by June 26" and "vladimir-volynia slaughtered by the enemy groups to be destroyed by the encirclement" and the "Lublin region as of June 24 seizure" is ordered. These counter-offensive attempts by the Red Army failed and the troops were down. The German offensive immediately destroyed these units.
General Hoth's forces captured the minsk from the north on June 26, 1941. advanced elements moved towards the east of the city. In June 27, the 2nd and 3rd Panzer groups made contact with the east of Minsk. 320 km in the territory of soviet. they advanced and left behind one third of the distance to Moscow. In the vast territory from the border of Poland to the beginning of the attack, the 32 Soviet infantry divisions, eight tanks and motorized divisions, cavalry and artillery divisions were surrounded. minsk, on June 28, 1941 was passed into the hands of the German forces. general hoth and general guderian's panzer groups continued to move eastward, leaving the smallest possible infantry elements behind. but the general commander of the general guderian, the 4th army commander general kluge, wanted to use the elements connected to both panzer groups in the liquidation of the soviet troops surrounded by west west of minsk. When Hitler supported his view, the movement of the Panzer groups was halted
southern armies group
In the southern part of the front, the German offensive was on the 5th army, the 6th army and the 26th army. the Soviet command reacted more quickly, and as a result, the German offensive initially faced a more resolute and resolute resistance. German infantry armies attacked in the outbreak sections of these Soviet armies, while the leading elements of the Panzer Group, which consisted of 600 tanks, attacked the right-wing from the 6th Soviet army by targeting Brody. The Soviet mechanized corps launched a counter-attack on the 1st Panzer group, which was held on 26 June with a force of 1,000 tanks. These clashes, which were among the most violent clashes of the barbarossa campaign, continued for four days. Although the German forces were ultimately overwhelming, this win cost heavy losses to the 1st Panzer Group.

As a result of the failure of this counterattack with the introduction of the last important soviet tank forces in western ukraine, the red army forces in the region underwent strategic retreat under the pressure of the German forces. At the end of the first week of the operation, the group of three German armies had reached the main operative goals of harveyat. however, in the vast sieges around minsk and bialystok soviet troops were still resisting. breaking down the resistance of the sieges and narrowing the encircling circles cost the German forces considerable losses. however, some red army troops managed to break through the encircling circles. 600 thousand dead, wounded and captive in terms of red army losses are made as a general estimate. The aircraft loss of the Soviet air force on Kiev was 1,561. the war had resulted in a very brilliant tactical victory. however, he had removed the German forces from an earlier offensive to Moscow and delayed his German progress by 11 weeks. general rusk von tippleskirch, "the Russians lost a war, but won a military expedition," he has written.
second stage, smolensk attack (3 July 1941 - 2 October 1941)
moscow radio broadcast on the morning of july 3 stalin'in. stalin:
"comrades, citizens, brothers, those who fight in the army and in the navy, I call you friends"
she called on all soviet peoples to fight against the invasion, to organize and mobilize partisan activities in the occupied territories, to order nothing left to be used by the enemy in the event of a withdrawal, to be transported or destroyed.

The troops of the infantry divisions advancing more heavily arrived on the siege of the Soviet troops, and on 3 July the hitler approved the panzer troops to continue from where they had been to the east. but on the one hand the mud caused by the summer rains of Russia, on the other hand the hardening Russian resistance slowed down the forward operation of the panzer units. this delay provided the time for the soviet supreme commander to set up counterattacks against the German central armies. however, the German war declaration of July 11 states that only 329 thousand prisoners were captured in the northern and central armies, and 1,800 guns and 3,340 armored vehicles were seized. it also suggests that 89 red army divisions were destroyed completely or partially.

general guderian 's left wing, dinyeper'i defended the three points on July 10 and July 11, 1941 passed. Despite the violent attacks on the wings, he continued to advance in the direction of smolensk and on 16 July 1941 he took over the city. the central part of the region reached desna on July 20 and occupied elnya. The most extreme goal of the group of central armies is the smolensk on the main transportation lines from the east to Moscow, which is considered the entrance gate of Moscow. The smolensk approach is being held by six soviet armies, which have taken part in a previously existing line of defense. the Soviet forces attacked the 3rd Panzer army on July 6 with a counterattack backed by 700 tanks. the German defense continued with the help of a very superior air superiority and repelled red army attacks. 3. After the Panzer army erupted against the Soviet counter-attack, Smolensk moved north from the 2nd Panzer army and crossed the Dnieper River from the south. the soviet armies between these two offensive lines had been trapped in their region. Panzer troops completed the siege on July 26 and took 180 thousand red army soldiers. However, during the 10-day clashes, more than 100 thousand soldiers were able to escape the German siege clamp and retreated to Moscow.
American history magazine, "Hitler will destroy the Red Army," declared the readers of the Smolensk battle. however, the German losses to date are 390 thousand, 28,000 of which are dead. the total of losses in the battles in all these regions, Poland, Norway, France, North Africa, the Balkans, until the June 22, 1941, when the German armies attacked Poland, on which the Barbarossa operation began on September 1, 1939, is almost equal to this figure. Although the total number of Soviet warriors captured until this date totaled 700 thousand people, the German losses were found at eleven percent of the force at the beginning of the campaign. however, the soviet government was able to mobilize human resources. In the north, at the end of July, female warriors were also found among the Red Army. When the fourth week of the operation was over, the German command realized that the Soviet power had been underestimated. the German troops had exhausted their initial supply stocks before they had access to the expected freedom of strategic action. operation was slowed to ensure integration. the time slowed down would be used to adapt the strategy to the new situation. the liberation of several soviet soldiers from the sieges had shaken the Hitler's belief in the success of the operation. at this stage, the Hitler began to think that the Soviet Union could be defeated by a series of strikes in the economic sphere. these economic coups should have been in the field of industrial capacity necessary to sustain the war. harkov and donets basin, which are important industrial centers in the south, and later the Caucasus oil fields should be taken. Leningrad, which is also an important center of war industry, had to be taken in a short time. the hitler, on the other hand, also attached importance to contacting the fins in the north.

General Fedor von Bock and almost all other generals who participated in the operation were in favor of continuing the operation in the direction of Moscow. In addition to the psychological importance of capturing the enemy capital, it was also considered that Moscow was the most important transport-junction of the country and that it accommodated most of the facilities of the war industry. Most importantly, according to German intelligence reports, the majority of the Red Army had been gathered around Moscow. the hitler, however, ordered the general guderian to overthrow his supreme commander, general von bock, of the panzer of the central armies, temporarily halting in the direction of Moscow, and shifting north and south.
third stage, south and kiev (2 October - 5 November 1941)
some generals, including the general halder, believed that the Moscow-based offensive should be continued to destroy and destroy the red army forces that were gathered in front of Moscow and Moscow. Hitler, on the other hand, feared that the red army would go back to Moscow in general. Napoleon, too, headed directly to Moscow, and General Kutuzov retreated the Russian armies. According to hitler, turning the wings into wings would be an additional gain in this respect. Because of the heavy threat on Moscow, red army troops will now convene, and when they return to Moscow, these troops could be gripped. furthermore, while the Soviet contingents were flowing into this region, operations in the south and north of the front would have been facilitated. Hitler, in a sense, "wants to attack the enemy in one direction by pulling the direction of the other direction". then the frontal and south of the façade of the mosque was taken to move forward. here was a huge-scale cannae type operation that hitler wanted to do.

in this context, hitler issued an order on 19 July and changed the main axis of the operation. According to this order, two panzer groups will be taken from the front of the central armies group. The troops of the general guderian will be turned to the south for the soviet forces in the Kiev region and the troops of the general hoth will be turned north to cut the Moscow - Leningrad connection. At the disposal of the group of central armies will be left infantry elements that will continue to progress only in the direction of Moscow. however, for the implementation of this maneuver, the Soviet troops in the east of Smolensk - Roslavl had to be destroyed. these operations, however, lasted longer than expected, due to the Soviet resistance and counter-attacks, the operation was completed only in late July. thereafter, a period of time had to be reserved for the repair and maintenance of armored units. while the discussions and the rest of the armored units continued, the general halder and the marshal brauchitsch gave a hit to the hitler on 19 August. Hitler also rejected this, and on 21 August he renewed his previous order, which for the Panzer groups had driven south and north. In August, some developments in the southern part of the frontier were concerned, and, in a sense, aroused the idea that hitler's decision was in place. a fierce Red Army offensive had begun in the left wing of the southern armies. the attack of the powerful Russian cavalry troops attacking the pripyat marsh, as well as the stopping of the sixth army of general Walter von Reichenau in front of Kiev, created a critical situation.
meanwhile, in mid-July, German troops approached a few kilometers to the south of the pripyat marsh. Near the uman, the three soviet armies were trapped between these two German forces, with the east of the German 17th army attacking and the 1st Panzer army moving south. German infantry forces narrowed the pocket while tanks also crossed the Dnieper. meanwhile, the 2nd Panzer army, which left the Central Army group, passed the Desna River, on the right wing of the 2nd Army. the two panzer armies trapped the four soviet armies and some parts of the two armies with this movement.

For the last attack on leningrad, the 4th panzer army was reinforced by tanks from the central armies group. the German army and estonian partisans, forest brothers, sailed to the peipus lake, throwing soviet forces, and the 16th German army attacked the northeast defense on 8 August. At the end of August, the 4th Panzer army had entered a distance of 48 km in the direction of Leningrad. in the meantime, the Finnish forces advanced on both sides of Ladoga Lake and reached the Soviet-Finnish border before the winter war.

at this stage, hitler, taking captive ordered the destruction of the city. Following this order, on September 9, 1941, the group of northern armies began a final offensive against Leningrad. 11 km in ten days. they made progress. but the last ten kilometers of progress was very slow and the losses were high. Hitler's attitude towards leningrad changed at this stage. he ordered the city not to be attacked by leningrad, and to condemn the city to starvation. the decision to take some armored elements under the command of the central armies to the order of the group of northern armies was also effective for the final offensive against Moscow in this change of attitude.

Before the start of the Moscow offensive, the Kiev operation must be concluded. While the southern armies moved north from the bridgeheads on the Dnieper, half of the central armies attacked south towards the rest of the Soviet forces in the south of Kiev. the soviet troops near kiev was held on September 16, 1941. the Soviet forces were crushed by tanks, guns and air bombings. After ten days of violent clashes, the Germans claimed that over 600 thousand Red Army soldiers were taken prisoner. actual losses are 452,720 persons and officers, 3,867 parts are ball and haven. The 43th division of Soviet 5th, 21st, 26th and 37th armies remained out of war.
fourth stage
The most critical phase of the barbarossa operation came at a time when there were already problems with supply due to mud caused by the rains of October. the group of central armies were ordered to proceed in the direction of Moscow. changes were made in the organizational structure of the three armies. The group of northern armies was assigned to the central group of armies to transfer to the group of troops, to complete the siege of leningrad, to narrow the circle but not to take the city. two of the southern armies were shifted to the three divisional central armies, one of which was panzer and one with a motorized division, and an assault was ordered in the direction of Crimea, Kharkov and Rostov. a large part of the forces gathered in the central armies group. these forces were made into a force of 1.5 million, including 46 infantry divisions, 15 panzer divisions, 9 mechanized divisions, 6 paramilitary divisions and a cavalry division.

The panzer pioneer abteilung elements of the second panzer division were advanced enough to see the Kremlin's towers. They were located on the railway line just south of lobnya and 16 km to Moscow. It was away. The Red Army troops defending the capital in the Moscow war took advantage of better supply conditions and were reinforced with fresh divisions from Siberia. ultimately, the German troops in the front of the Moscow managed to throw back. they were under the same winter conditions, but at least they were better equipped in terms of clothing. in the same way, they transported in the ice and snow covered land, excavated in the same degree of frozen soil, the same degree of freezing of the fuel they used. The majority of the Soviet counter-attacks were directed towards the front of the German central armies group, which was closest to Moscow.

After the battle of kiev, the red army had no numerical advantage over the German forces. and even worse, there is no substitute troops trained in the case of the Soviet armies. stalin for the defense of the mosque 83 had a force of 800 thousand people. but in fact the force that can be effective is not over 25 divisions.

The typhoon operation, which was the German offensive directly directed to moscow, was launched on 2 October 1941. however, the fourth panzer group of the general erich hoepner was taken from the order of the northern armies and given to the general kluge. a well-organized series of defense lines was formed against the front of the central armies group, the first line of defense was in the vicinity of vias and the second line of defense in the Moscow region.

from the south of oryol, the main defensive lines of soviet 121 km. The attack by the 2nd Panzer army from the south was a complete surprise for the Soviet defense. three days later the German army 2 attacked the west while panzer moved to bryansk. soviet 3rd and 13th army were besieged. In the north, the 3rd and 4th Panzer army attacked the viasma, trapping the 19th army, the 20th army, the 24th army and the 32nd army. the first lines of defense of Moscow are scattered. 673 thousand soviet soldiers were captured by the Germans. The total number of soviet military personnel imprisoned since the beginning of the German attack has reached three million. 90 thousand people and 150 tanks remained in the defense of Moscow.
the third panzer army on Moscow on 13 October 1941, 140 km. distance reached. thereafter, a state of emergency was declared in Moscow. the weather was worsening from the very beginning of the typhoon. the region was under constant rainfall and the heat was falling. unpaved roads soon turned into mud bog. these negative conditions, the direction of the German forward movement in the Moscow reduced to 3 - 3.5 km per day. replenishment status also deteriorated rapidly. On October 31, the German high command ordered the troops to stop while the armies were being rearranged. this pause provided time for the soviet supreme commander to provide a better replenishment situation, to gather positions and to organize new reserve forces.

When the air gradually became cold (general winter nibs), on 15 November, when the soil began to freeze, the German attack began again. Despite the fact that the troops started to progress, there was no development in the supply. the Soviet defense against the German progress is composed of the 5th, 16th, 30th, 43th, 49th and 50th armies. The German plan is in the form of crossing the Moscow canal and flanking Moscow from the northeast, under the leadership of the 3rd and 4th Panzer armies. the second panzer army attacking in the direction of tula to progress to the south from Moscow. the fourth panzer army would attack from the center for a soviet counter-offensive that could develop from the advance of the forward movement of these two wings. the lack of fuel and ammunition for two weeks, and in spite of all-out attacks, the progress towards Moscow seemed almost creeping. however, the second Panzer army was stopped in the south. The Soviet 49th army, which was strengthened by the Siberian troops, and the Soviet counter-attacks, which were aggravated by the 50th army, won an unexpected success against the 2nd Panzer army on November 22nd. however, the fourth Panzer army managed to overthrow the Moscow canal by throwing back its Soviet 16th army and embarked on siege maneuvers.

German troops 258. infantry division of some troops on December 2, 24 km from Moscow. managed to get stuck up. the Kremlin's towers seemed from the spot where they were. but immediately after the first snowstorm in the winter began. German armies were not equipped according to winter conditions. the losses caused by cold and disease were more than combat losses, and the losses in the last three weeks were 155 thousand. some divisions had lost half of their combatants. extreme cold caused serious problems in weapons and equipment, and the luftwaffe could not provide the necessary air support to ground troops.

when it was found that there was no chance of success, it was decided to stop the attack and to withdraw all the units to the kaluga - viyazma line. but at the last moment for the 4th army of the hitler "4. the army will not withdraw even a single step." ordered. on the one hand, the guderian general guderian in the right wing of the 4th army was able to withdraw the forces that had caused heavy losses in the vicinity of the tula. the red-army counter-attacks suddenly threw these troops behind the river. on the other hand, the troops of the general hoepner on the left wing of the 4th army were threatened by the siege.
with the latest reinforcements, the red army forces in the Moscow region had reached half a million, and the Soviet troops launched a general counter-attack on December 5, while the German forces were at least 320 km. they managed to throw back. The German losses in this operation, which was attempted for the invasion of the Soviet Union, resulted in 250,000 deaths and 500,000 casualties. the majority of these losses were lost in early October. on the other hand, the losses of waffen-ss, as well as the allies of germany, eg hungary, romania and fin are not known.
south, stalingrad and maykop
hitler, the central armies group to re-attack the mosque when the southern armies had set an operational plan for the group. The blow to the Red Army in the Kiev region was already a very heavy blow. and then the stavka was in a hurry to the defense of the capital. an operation in the south was thought to be easier. even the left wing of the forces involved in the operation was 650 km. it was not even cared for. The front line of the southern armies, as of 1 September, roughly lies on the Novgorod - Dnipro - Crimean isthmus line. Hitler's targets for marshal gerd von rundstedt were to reach the voronej - rostov line in the first place, to cross the don river with the left wing to stalingrad and to attack maykop via rostov with his right flank. however, he managed to bring new divisions to stavka, moscow and the southern part. the left wing of the marshal von rundstedt, the 6th army, stopped after passing the Kursk. the 17th army immediately to the south could not proceed. the 1st panzer army of the general von kleist, which ultimately formed the most violent offensive arm, was stopped by the counter-attacks against the left-handed left side of the Soviet forces. however, the 3rd panzer corps entered rostov on November 22nd. but as a result of the fierce red army attacks, the city was evacuated on 28 November and 80 km. he had to withdraw to the west. the withdrawal of the German forces from rostov is the first retreat of this caliber. In spite of these results, the 11th army of marshal von rundstedt succeeded in capturing the Crimean peninsula, with the exception of kosastopol and the eastern end of the kerch peninsula.

reasons for the initial Soviet defeat
The Red Army was not prepared for the surprise attack of the Axis forces, and in 1941 it was heavily defeated. on the other hand, the German armed forces had created a useful experience in the battles until 1941, especially in the light of the blitzkrieg. it also had a doctrine on German forces, mobility, destruction of enemy forces and impeccable communication. on the other hand, they were confident that low casualties would continue.

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