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Observing the sun-like stars in the very early stages of their formation, ALMA found the trace of the organic molecule, methyl isocyanate, one of the basic chemical building blocks of life. This kind of prebiotic molecule is detected for the first time around the sun-like premise stars in which our Solar System has evolved. Discovery can help astronomers understand how life begins on Earth.
Two astronomers' team, using the Atacama Large Millimeter / millimeter string (ALMA) in Chile, found trace of the prebiotic complex organic molecule, methyl isocyanate, in the multi-star system IRAS 16293-2422. The co-executives of the first team are Rafael Martín-Doménech from the Astrobiology Center in Madrid, Spain, and Víctor M. Rivilla from the INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence, Niels Ligterink from the Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom Audrey Coutens from the University of London was the leader. Sürpriz This star system continues to surprise! After the discovery of sugars, we now found methyl isocyanate. This family of organic molecules plays a role in the synthesis of amino acids and peptides in the form of protein, the biological basis of life in the sense that we know, daki explains Niels Ligterink and Audrey Coutens.

Thanks to the capabilities of ALMA, both teams had the opportunity to observe the molecule at several different and specific wavelengths along the radio spectrum. In the early stages of their evolution, they found unique chemical traces in the hot and intense gas and dust cocoons in the interior near the young stars. Both teams were able to detect traces of methyl isocyanate separately. Then they performed chemical modeling and laboratory experiments to find the origin of the molecule.
IRAS 16293-2422 is a multi-star system in the stellar formation called Rho Ophiuchi and around 400 light-years away in the direction of the constellation. The new results obtained with ALMA indicate that methyl isocyanate is present around each of these young stars.
The other planets in the Earth and the Solar System are made up of substances that remain behind the formation of the Sun. For this reason, researching sun-like predecessor-stars allows astronomers to observe a similar situation that led to the formation of our Solar System 4.5 billion years ago.
Rafael Martín-Doménech and Víctor M. Rivilla, co-authors of one of the research articles, comment: ın Our results excite us, because these early stars are quite similar to the Sun at the beginning of their lives, and they are especially suitable for Earth-sized planets to occur. Finding prebiotic molecules is another piece of the puzzle, in which we can understand how life emerged on our planet. Or Niels Ligterink, who is pleased with the results of the laboratory supporting the findings, says: ı Apart from identifying these molecules, we want to understand how they are formed. According to our laboratory experiments, methyl isocyanate can be formed on ice particles under very cold conditions similar to interstellar space. Accordingly, this molecule - that is, some of the peptide bonds - in fact, most young people are around the sun-like star.
Notes
[1] In astrochemistry, a complex molecule consists of at least six or more atoms and at least one of these atoms must be carbon. The chemical configuration of methyl isocyanate is in the form of CH3NCO and includes carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. This highly toxic component is the main cause of death in the tragic Bhopal industrial accident in 1984.
[2] The system was previously observed in 2012 with ALMA and it was found that another simple sugar molecule required for life contained glycoaldehyde.
[3] The team led by Rafael Martín-Doménech used new and archived data from ALMA's receiver Bands 3, 4, and 6, which were taken over a wide range of wavelengths. Niels Ligterink et al. ALMA Pre-Stars Interferometry Line Screening (PILS) to screen the chemical complexity of IRAS 162893-2422 and to display the full wavelength range with ALMA's Band 7 on a small scale equal to the dimensions of our Solar System. data.
[4] The teams examined the light of the precursor to examine the chemical components by spectral analysis. The ratio of the amount of methyl isocyanate to the molecular hydrogenation and other trace gases was found to be comparable to that of the previous determinations around the two large mass precursors (large nucleated molecule nuclei in the Orion KL and Sagittarius B2 North).
 [5] Martín-Doménech's team modeled the gas-particle formation of methyl isocyanate chemically. The amount of molecule observed can be explained by the surface chemistry of the dust particles in space following chemical reactions in the gas phase. However, Ligterink's team has shown that the molecule can be formed at extreme temperatures as low as 15 Kelvin (-258 degrees Celsius) in interstellar space, using their ultra-high-vacuum experiments in their laboratory in Leiden.

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