What is Down's syndrome? How does it occur?

What is Down Syndrome? In its simplest definition, Down Syndrome is that the cells in your child's body have an extra chromosome instead of 46, ie 47 chromosomes. Down Syndrome is not a disease but a genetic difference. The nuclei of the cells that make up the human body are composed of genes linked to each other by chromosomes. These genes and chromosomes are the main components of our physiological and personality structure, so your child's extra chromosome will affect his or her life. In most chromosomal abnormalities, the embryo cannot develop. Down Syndrome is a condition in which the embryo can complete its development. If your child's physical appearance may be slightly different from other children, there may be a number of health problems. But remember, some children have blond hair, As some of you have blue eyes, it is a genetic difference that your child has Down's syndrome. There are two things about Down Syndrome. First, the origin of the Down Syndrome is not a parent, and nothing before or during pregnancy can cause the child to be born with Down's syndrome. Second, children with Down's syndrome, like other children, also have their own personalities, abilities and thoughts. How does Down Syndrome occur? We talked about the fact that the nuclei of the cells we have are made up of genes and the physical features we carry, and the main elements of our personality are encoded in these genes. Our genes are linked to each other by bars called chromosomes. Most cells in most of us have 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes are also clustered in pairs, ie our cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. One of our chromosome pairs comes from our mother's egg and the other from our father's sperm. The cells of the eggs or sperms in the human body are called "germ cells" and the cells of these single cells are composed of 23 chromosomes. A combination of 46 chromosomes occurs with the incorporation of eggs and sperm cells, and when the first cell is divided and a second cell emerges, the new cell carries the characteristics of the first. Therefore, the baby's genetic structure depends on the first cell to be formed. Chromosomes are in equilibrium in pairs in pairs of 23 pairs. 

If for any reason these pairs have too much chromosome, it will disrupt the balance. This condition, namely having three chromosomes, is defined as trisomy. In the case of Down Syndrome, three chromosomes occur in the gene chain. This formation is also called Trisomy 21 because it is formed in the chromosome ring. As the embryo develops, it is transferred to newly formed cells, causing all cells to have an extra chromosome. 95% of people with Down's syndrome are Nondisjuction Trisomy 21. Mosaicism, another species, is seen in 1% of people with Down's syndrome. In Mosaicism, an incorrect division occurs in one of the first cell divisions after fertilization. Thus, some of the developing embryo Search in the Site Search for a Private Call: Article # 139 © by Psk.Sena TUNÇ | Release August 2007 | 63,756 Readers Read Too Home | Articles 1 Likes cells have 46 chromosomes, some have 47 chromosomes. The proportion of cells with 47 chromosomes varies from child to child and these children have only a fraction of the features of Down Syndrome. Although children with Down's syndrome have an extra 21st chromosome, all other chromosomes are normal and perform their duties properly. Therefore, some of its features are negatively affected by the extracellular proteins caused by excess chromosomes, whereas the main lines of its personality are determined by the other 46 chromosomes. Why is my child with Down's syndrome? Regarding the determinants of Down Syndrome, although various theses such as age, radiation, troit antibodies, drug and alcohol use have been proposed, there is no certainty in them. As a result, the 21st chromosome has not been divided for an unknown reason and has remained in the new cell. The advanced age of the mother is the only statistical data associated with the frequency of the syndrome. Recent studies have shown that chromosome indivisibility can be caused not only by the mother's egg but also by the sperm of the father. What is the risk of subsequent children with Down's syndrome? The answer to this question depends on the type of child's chromosome change. The risk of recurrence after childbirth is less than 1% in Trisomy 21. It does not depend on the age of the parents. The risk is not high in the mosaic form, but there are exceptions. How do children with Down Syndrome develop? Too much chromosome affects the development of the child negatively. This will always be important. Because it is not possible to take back the chromosome change. But it should not be forgotten that the development of a child is not just due to genetic factors. Environment and learning factors are also very important and effective in the development of the child. Children with Down Syndrome are not different from the needs of other children. They are happy to be with their parents and siblings. They want to explore, play, learn, laugh. The growth of a child with Down's syndrome as much as possible in a social environment is extremely useful for its development. Children show some significant improvements until the age of 1. These developments are welcomed by parents. For example, the first smile or sitting, crawling, the first step, and so on. Children with Down syndrome learn many things later than other children and complete the normal development procedure later. But you can be sure that your child will learn all of them. In addition to domestic assistance for children with Down Syndrome, the assistance of development and rehabilitation centers is also very important. Children with Down's syndrome can handle a lot of extraordinary work. But the learning and development of these children should never be compared to other children who are not disabled. 
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