The Answer of Question Marks as Memory, Learning and Intelligence: Neuroplasticity

This phenomenon, which we can call the ability of neurophysical and neurochemical adaptation of the nervous system to environmental changes and damage, is a very surprising and enlarging anatomy when you learn it.
Content of the entry
- a brief introduction on how neurons work.
- neuroplasticity: memory, working mechanisms of learning.
- advice for children and adults to maintain brain health.

horizon information
to be an active act, not a passive action of forgetting something.

When we forget something, we think that we do it without our own will. but our brain does this intentionally.

until recently, it was thought that the brain was stable, that is, structurally unchanged after a certain stage of development. Neurogenesis in the human brain (the production of new neurons) was thought to have completely ended after childhood. We learned 20 years ago that neurogenesis in the human brain continues in certain parts of the brain, for example in the hippocampus after adulthood. neurogenesis is most common in fetal development and one year after birth. then it stands for most brain regions.

If the production of new neurons is so limited, how is our brain learning new things? How does it adapt to environmental changes? for example, how visually impaired people feel their senses outside sight?

keyword: neuroplasticity or neuronal plasticity
In order to understand neuroplasticity, I first need to explain some neurons. The world was once a cloud of gas and dust git joke, no need to go back.
neurons communicate with each other through electrical signals. The connection between two neurons is called synapses. the electrical signal from a neuron is transmitted by converting it to the other neuronal chemical signal. this transmission occurs in the neurons in the somida and somanin dendrites. The two neurons that connect with each other convert the electrical signal from the synaptic terminal to a chemical signal by secreting the neurotransmitter. The chemical signal, also known as the neurotransmitter, is a chemical within a bubble sphere (vesicle). For example, we can give serotonin or dopamine. This neurotransmitter stimulates the other neuron by binding to receptors found in dendrites. it is like getting off at the airport by airplane, then driving to another airport by car and getting on a plane again. the car journey in this analogy, the neurotransmitter release, is the signal we call the chemical signal. this chemical signal activates the ion channels of the other neuron, allowing the electrical signal to be reproduced in the recipient neuron. these signals combine with signals from other neurons. if these signals exceed a certain level, the electrical signal passes through the axon terminal, stimulating another neuron, and so on. Although there are different types of synapses, this is the type of synapse we observe in general.

my animation was for only two neurons. in fact, a neuron synapses with thousands of neurons.
looks like space, doesn't it? Maybe the universe is a brain of a living creature that lives outside the dimensions we can perceive?

Dendrites. these dendrites have a number of serrations. these knurls are called dendritic branches. These dendritic branches are the result of neuroplasticity.
Let's do some more zoom
changes in the structure of your neurons when an information memory
There is a point to note here. The memory of the bicycle accident that you have experienced in your childhood does not represent a single neuron. many neurons contain this information in a split form (even in repetitions). moreover, this information can be spread across many parts of the brain, not in one region. that day when you fall on the ground when you see the tree you see, the smell from the soil, your mother does not forget the sound of yelling at you. all this information is clustered in different brain regions. this comes from a combination of signals coming from these brain regions, and a process of recall is realized.

what we have learned is divided between neurons in the brain. neurons try to uncover this information by establishing synapses with each other. Let's assume you're trying to remember a memory. you can remember a detail that you don't remember with someone else at that moment. when this person tells you about this detail, if your neurons establish the necessary connections, you will remember the detail that this person mentioned. you can remember that detail even if you can't remember it at a later time. these are due to the fact that information is divided between neurons and that this information is processed by a combination of signals from different neurons.

neurons are not as static as they are quite dynamic. therefore, the shape of the dendrites in our neurons is constantly changing. changing the shape of the neurons can lead to changes in the information learned and even to the complete disappearance of the information. Our brain constantly changes the shape of the dendrites to remember new things and creates new synapses with other neurons. our experience is constantly changing our brains.

The connections of neurons in certain brain regions gradually become dull when not in use. formed synapses are withdrawn and structural changes in dendrites begin to disappear over time. If we don't run these neurons sufficiently, we lose our abilities, senses, motor ability, and forget the information we learned. so we have to do it again in order not to forget what we have learned.
evolution has created the nervous system to adapt to changes in the environment.
brain in animals; adapting to environmental changes, finding mates to mate, providing commands to escape predators, etc. There are many purposes. Of course, all of these things have a primitive nervous system or even without having a nervous system can live. therefore, the brain has evolved to be prone to immediate adaptation to environmental influences and changes. If the brain gets what it receives through the senses, it processes it and changes itself according to external warnings, adapting to the environment.

different types of neurons are found in different parts of the brain. these neurons are specialized in the region and evolved to a specific purpose. But with neuroplasticity, changes can be made to enable different brain regions to function more efficiently. it is even possible that the neurons present here can gain different tasks, but this change is quite limited. This is because the visually impaired people and the brain regions related to vision gain different functions.

neurons increase the working efficiency of each other through synapses. The connections between the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system allow the motor functions to associate limbic activity with memory function or sensory function. for example, new information learned during a physical activity can become more permanent when associated with that activity and the same activity is performed. or a memory that is difficult to remember can be more easily remembered by a specific odor at the relevant time. for example, remembering your scent when you think of your grandfather is an example. The increase in the number of synapses also protects against degenerative or traumatic memory loss. the more neurons communicate with each other, the more conservative the cognitive functions are.
environmental factors play a role as well as genetic factors in intelligence
especially in childhood stress, socioeconomic conditions have an effect. Our experience until the age of 7-8 has great effects on our brain in the long term.

Although it is not possible to raise your intelligence level, you can do a few things to keep your intelligence at the current level. because the level of intelligence decreases with age.

First of all, don't lose your time with the alleged games. In research, it is determined that these games do not only protect your intelligence, but they are better at those games. Even if these games have an effect, they won't be much.


activities that affect your neuroplasticity in a positive way
- learn language. interestingly affects the health of the brain positively. children up to 7-8 years of age in addition to the mother tongue knowing more than 1-2 languages ​​have very positive effects. this is true for adults, but more effective in children.

- sport. I don't mean to go to the gym and remove the dumble for 1 hour. I'm sorry, bodybuilders, it doesn't have much to do with your brain. physical activities affecting the brain are cardio-type activities: swimming, cycling, running, trekking, etc. it is very important that you do these activities in places where you will breathe fresh air. in a stuffy gym or in the center of the city; Try to do it in the nature or not on the beach in exhaust fumes. If you protect your cardiovascular health, your heart pumps blood into your body more efficiently, the blood is used more efficiently by the brain.

- Karate and so on. learning defense / fighting techniques have positive effects on the brain. it is also known that mastering these techniques develops motor skills.

- Play a instrument. it has important effects on the brain. can be any instrument. my personal opinion is that the best instrument for this purpose is the piano.

- eat healthy: take omega-3 essential fatty acids. feed on healthy fats, such as organic olive oil. stay away from ready-made meals with unknown chemicals in the body. Remember that the food you eat, the water you drink, has an effect on your body and especially on your brain. eat plenty of fruit and vegetables to get the essential vitamins.

- to ensure the sleep pattern. Most changes in the brain occur during our sleep.

- meditation. Recent research shows that meditation has positive effects, especially on stress management and "calmness" in the brain.

- avoiding regular alcohol consumption and severely limiting alcohol intake. I guess there is no need to say not to use drugs.

- do not smoke.

- little stress, or even benefit. Try to stay away from chronic stress.

- hug. Yes, really, hug people and animals. have positive effects in brain chemistry.

- social life. fun time with friends has a positive effect on the brain. socializing reduces stress. but if you are introvert and feel so happy, do not force yourself to socialize.

- gossip, avoid empty conversation. Stay away from conversation that doesn't add anything to you. Don't follow magazin.

- blue light. We are exposed to blue light due to the idle of the brain due to the easiness of our day and the technological devices after sunset. long periods of looking at blue light are disturbed due to disturbing the physiological order as well as sleep patterns. Doing activities that will enable you to use your brain efficiently by putting you in the distance with technology will protect your brain health. Use modes such as "night mode, read mode", or "twilight" to allow the red filter to switch to the screen to avoid the harmful effects of blue light. You can use the software called "f.lux" for the computer.

If you have a child or if you intend to have a child, consider all this. In children, they are effective until the age of 7-8 even until puberty.
childhood
The brain produces extra neurons in fetal development and childhood. When the brain continuously produces new neurons, it establishes synapses with other neurons by stimulating neurons. Non-synapse / unused neurons are cleared by the brain as time passes. The majority of neurons produced in infancy and childhood are cleared when maturity is reached. children's brains are more plastic, but this plasticity is preserved to a small extent until almost 30 years of age. This high neuroplasticity in childhood can last for many years after the onset of the effects of genetic factors.

make sure your spouse is a good quality person before you make a child. do not make children do not comply with these criteria. Are you even divorce, maniac? Unhappy relationships affect not only your child but also you. it causes chronic stress. the co-existence of parents, the interaction of the child with the mother and father are also factors that affect the development of the brain positively.

Puppies whose mothers are related and have a healthy relationship with their mothers were found to be more resistant to stress in their adults. there is evidence that the same effect is valid in humans.

this shows that epigenetic factors also have an effect on the brain. epigenetic factors are active or inactive in the body due to environmental changes. we see that our brain health is influenced by warnings from the outside environment in childhood. The expression of the genes in our brain, just like the rest of the body, depends on the external factors.

keep your child away from stress, if possible from technology. The children of silicon valley managers go to a school without technology.

We came to the point where we were, as a result of millions of years of evolution, and now we study evolution and even examine our brain, a product of evolution, using our brain, which is the product of evolution.
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