Parathyroid glands in humans; peanuts, usually four in number, and are located on the surface of the thyroid. For a long time, they were thought to be part of the thyroid or functionally associated with it. Now we know that their proximity to the thyroid is misleading, and both are completely separate in terms of development and function.
Parathyroid hormone, usually written as PTH, helps maintain the calcium-phosphate balance between blood and other tissues. As a result,is an element of importance in providing the relative invariance of the internal fluid medium of the body. In this respect, we have seen that insulin, glucagon and calcitonin are also important. PTH increases the concentration of calcium in the blood (thus acting as a calcitonin antagonist) and decreases the phosphate concentration. It does this by affecting at least three organs, kidneys, intestines and bone. It prevents calcium excretion from the kidneys and intestines, stimulating the passage of calcium from the bones into the blood (bones contain 98% of all the calcium and 66% of phosphate). However, calcium in the bone depends on phosphate and the destruction of bone leads to the release of phosphate together with calcium. PTH removes this excess of phosphate from the blood by stimulating it to be excreted by the kidneys. In fact, by the action of PTH, more phosphate is released than is passed through the blood. 

As a result, Naturally occurring hypoparathyroidism is very rare; however, sometimes in the tyrosite operations, the parathyrocyte can be accidentally removed.
The result is an increase in phosphate concentration in the blood and a decrease in calcium concentration (because more calcium is removed from the kidneys and intestines and more calcium is attached to the bones). These changes in the liquid medium of the cells cause serious deviations, especially in the muscles and nerves. These tissues are very sensitive and respond to very mild stimuli with tremors, cramps and convulsions. If PTH is not secreted at all, large amounts of calcium are not added, resulting in death in a short time. PTH injections are effective in preventing symptoms.
Sometimes hyperparathyroidism occurs naturally. The reason for this is the growth of the glands or tumor formation. In this case, PTH is excreted in such large amounts that the opposite effect of calcitonin is no longer able to maintain the normal balance. The most obvious symptom of this condition is that the bones are weakened and become easily twisted and easily broken due to excessive calcium loss.
Source: poxox blogs
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