Bacteria Design with Least Genes for Life Created

Researchers have designed and synthesized the most minimal bacterial genome of 473 genes, with life-required genetic code. The same team had already produced the first self-replicating, synthetic bacterial cell in 2010, producing genomes on the computer and designing it as a chemical in the laboratory and planting this cell in the recipient cell, creating a newly controlled synthetic genome. The research team, led by Craig Venter and Clyde Hutchison, then went on to pursue the goal of creating a minimal life form that would carry the least necessary genes to provide the simplest form of life. To accomplish this, the researchers turned to a bacterium with the least number of genomes that were self-replicating, called Mycoplasma. In 2010, researchers synthesized the genome of mycoplasma micoid. Based on the current literature, the researchers designed hypothetically minimal genomes in 8 different segments. Thus, it could be precisely tested whether the genes present in each segment were indispensable or not. In this designing - making test, researchers searched for genes that appear to be essential, whether they are really necessary for life. Venter, in the series of experiments conducted by Hutchison et al.,

Put numerous tranposons (foreign genetic sequences) in numerous genes, disrupted their functions and tried to find out which was necessary for the whole function of the bacteria. Afterwards, they reduced the genome in synthetic bacteria as much as they could shrink in the genome. Critically, some genes classified as non-essential at the end of the analysis were found to have the same basic function in the second gene, so it was understood that a gene pair should remain in the minimal genome. The latest version underlined as JCVI-syn3.0 consists of 473 genes and has a smaller genome than the smallest genome that can replicate automatically in nature. The researchers state that this minimal genome is devoid of all DNA-modified and restriction genes and most genes encoding lipoproteins. In spite of everything, almost all genes in the genome are read and expressed, as well as the genetic information used to transmit genetic information to other generations. What is interesting is the precise biological function of 31% of the genes of JCVI-syn3.0, while the remaining genes are still undiscovered. However, few of these genes may encode universal proteins with potential homology to other organisms and whose functions are still unknown. The JCVI-syn3.0 platform will be a versatile tool for exploring the basic functions of life.

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