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Harmful and Potentially Useful Bacteria
Bacteria in the genus Yersinia have a terrible reputation. The bacterium Yersinia pestis causes the plague epidemic and is responsible for the scary event known as black death in history. The bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica causes a form of food poisoning known as yersiniosis. Yersinia ruckeri bacteria cause red mouth disease in fish. Infection produces subcutaneous bleeding in the mouth and other body parts and the mortality rate is very high. But yesinia rucker has a very important benefit for people. The Yersinia ruckeri bacterium produces a toxin that can fight cancer.

Properties of Yersinia Bacteria
Members of the genus Yersinia are rod-shaped bacteria that sometimes develop an oval or spherical shape. These are facultative anaerobes. That is, they can live without oxygen in the environment as well as oxygen. They change their biology when the medium is oxygen free.
Yersinia bacteria are very versatile in other respects. For example, the bacterium yersinia enterocolitica usually has whips and is mobile. It loses its whip when it enters the body or in a body temperature. The bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica can live in the refrigerator and at body temperature, ie at low temperatures.
Yersinia, gram negative. The Gram stain was named after the bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram who tested in 1884. As a result of the addition of special chemicals to bacteria, gram positive bacteria appear purple, gram-negative bacteria appear pink. The different results are due to the different amounts of peptidoglycan in the cell wall of the bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria contain much more peptidoglycan than gram-negative ones. One gram staining is an important step in the identification of a bacterium.
Yersinia is chemoorganotropic. It takes its energy from the organic chemicals it absorbs from its environment.

Plague Reason
The major cause of the plague is yersinia pestis. However, the bacteria need the help of rodents and fleas to cause an infection. Rodents act as bacteria reservoirs. When a flea feeds the blood of an infected rodent, it draws bacteria as well as blood. If fleas bite a person to get blood later, the bacteria pass into the person's body.
One reason for bacteria to pass from humans to fleas is the presence of fleas called mes blocked Bak. Occlusion occurs in the digestive tract. It consists of a pyrene digestive system, an intestine, an intestine and an intestine.
- The anterior bowel begins with the oral cavity and ends with a tubular region called an esophagus.
- A valve-like room called proventricula is located at the end of the esophagus where it enters the middle intestine.
- Middle intestine, food digestion and absorption zone.
- The back intestine is the faecal pellet production area obtained from undigested food. Lumps are excreted from the body.
Yersinia pestis bacteria obtained in a rodent blood multiply in the proventricle and often in the middle intestine and form an intense mass and obstruction. As a result, digestion of blood and absorption of nutrients are prevented. Hungry fleas, often bites people to get food.

Yersinia Pestis Adaptations for Infection
When the bacteria Yersinia pestis are in the fleas, they secrete a slime. Slime binds bacteria together and forms a structure called biofilm. Biofilm helps prevent the fleas digestive system.
When Yersinia pestis enters a human, it produces various chemicals that prevent the person's immune system from attacking him. This allows the bacteria to survive and cause disease.

Types of Plague
The bacterium Yersinia pestis causes three types of plague. These are bubonic plague, septicemic plague and pneumonic vein. All three species can be fatal. However, modern antibiotics are usually an effective treatment. In the case of infection, especially in the case of pneumonic plague, treatment should be initiated early.
Symptoms of plague and some common plague are listed below. However, other conditions may also be caused by symptoms. A diagnosis of a doctor is necessary to diagnose.

Bubonic plague
Bubonic is the most common type of plague. In this form of the disease, bacteria enter the lymphatic system. The lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin are swollen and painful. The infected person also experiences flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, and weakness. This form of disease is not normally contagious. However, touching the leaked liquid from the rabies can infect the disease.

Septicemic Plague
In septicemic plague, bacteria enter blood. Bleeding occurs under the skin or in the organs, which can lead to shock. The person may also experience abdominal pain, fever, chills and weakness. The septicemic plague may occur on its own or may accompany one of the other types of plague. Sometimes it occurs in the fingers, toes and gangrene on the nose. These cells turn black while dying, the name, Black Death ürk comes from here. Like the bubonic plague, septicemic plague is not contagious unless it touches infected blood or tissue.

Pneumonic plague
In pneumonic plague, bacteria enter the lungs and cause pneumonia. This is the most serious form of the disease. Person suffers from coughing, difficulty breathing and chest pain. Also, they cough blood. Unlike the other two forms of plague, pneumonic plague is contagious. The bacteria are spread by droplets in the air released from the lungs.

Black Death
Black death is a common yersinia pestis infection that causes terrible consequences in Europe and Asia. Percent estimates of Europeans who died of infection vary from two-thirds of the population to one-third. The biggest epidemic occurred at the end of the 1340s, and there were smaller outbreaks that were often referred to as black death, but that emerged centuries later.
It is frequently reported that those who died of black death had a bubbly plague. If this is the case, it is surprising that the disease is spreading in such a large area at such a frightening rate. Flea bites alone do not seem to be a sufficient explanation. Bacteria can also be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissues, such as when transporting the body of a person killed by the plague. Nevertheless, some researchers believe that the reason for the rapid spread of the disease is that it is airborne and that a large number of people have experienced pneumonic plague.

Today Bacteria
The bacteria Yersinia pestis are still present today. The potential for harm is still present, and although small outbreaks occur, infection is now much less serious than in the past. This is because we have antibiotics to treat the disease.
Scientists have discovered the DNA of the yersinia pestis bacterium from the time of the black death and compared it with the DNA in the current version of the bacteria to see if it has changed significantly. However, no significant difference has been found so far.
In 2017, a plague outbreak occurred in Madagascar. According to the WHO, 1618 pneumonic plague cases, 324 cucumber plague cases and a septicemic plague were detected between 1 August and 10 November. In addition, WHO has not been classified into the plague type 176. 72 people died from pneumonic plague. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) indicate that almost every year in Madagascar, bladder plague cases have been diagnosed.

Yersiniosis and Symptoms
Yersiniosis is a food poisoning or foodborne disease. The symptoms of the disease depend on the age of the patient. Children are usually more affected than adults.
Common symptoms of yersiniosis include abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever. Diarrhea can be bloody. In older children and adults, the pain may be on the right side of the abdomen and may not have diarrhea. As a result, the disease can be mixed with appendicitis. Rarely, an infected person may experience skin rash or joint pain.
The symptoms of yersiniosis usually last from one to several weeks. Rash or joint problems may take longer. Although most of the symptoms disappear after a month, joint pain can last up to six months.
A doctor should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment.

Causes of Yersiniosis
In North America, yersinioisis is usually caused by eating food contaminated by yersinia enterocolitica bacteria. These foods include meat from raw or inadequately cooked pigs, cows and sheep. Pork appears more problematic. Especially the swine intestines are dangerous.
There are other causes of yersiniosis, including non-pasteurized milk and drinking untreated water. Inadequate food hygiene can lead to the transmission of bacteria. The bacteria live in the intestine of the host, so anything that is contaminated by the intestinal content or the feces of infected animals and humans can be dangerous. The infection is usually diagnosed by stool test.

Kızılağız Disease in Fish
Kızılağız disease, salmonidae family is common in fish. The fish in this family are salmon and trout. The disease is caused by the infection of a yersinia ruckeri bacterium.
The bacteria cause subcutaneous bleeding in the mouth and tongue of the fish, making it appear bright red. Subcutaneous bleeding or bleeding may occur in the eyes, fins and skin. In the late stage of the disease, it can swell with abdominal fluid. It can be treated with antibiotics. However, the mortality rate is high.

Cancer-fighting Yersinia Toxin
The Yersinia ruckeri bacterium produces a toxin named Afp18. Toxin is an enzyme that deactivates the protein called RhoA. Protein is found in both fish and human and has similar functions in every organism. Actin plays a role in the production and degradation of filaments in a cell. Actin filaments are necessary in the process of cell division. Cancer cells have a much higher cell division rate than normal cells and have a high demand for actin. This allowed scientists to suspect that AFP18 could help cure the disease.
Afp18 binds RhoA by binding a sugar molecule called n-acetylglucosamine to tyrosine, an amino acid found in the protein. The researchers say this is an unusual reaction. When they injected toxin into zebrafish embryos with rapidly dividing cells, the actin filaments in the embryos collapsed, the cells stopped dividing, and the embryos could not develop.
In principle, the use of Afp18 to treat cancer by stopping cancer cell proliferation appears to be effective. However, there may be a problem with interfering with cell division. Some cells in the human body have a high proportion of cell division, so they can also be affected by toxin. Two of these cells are intestinal lining and red bone marrow. However, toxin can be very useful, especially when it affects cancer cells.

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