What are 4WD, AWD and 4WS Systems? How does it work ?

The Four Wheel Drive (4WD-FWD), All Whell Drive (AWD) and Four Wheel Steering (4WS-FWS) systems have a wide range of functions. It is very important to know the differences of these terms especially for those who will get a new vehicle. Because the differences between the vehicles, such as the land, passenger and the differences according to these terms are separated according to the needs. 1) Four Wheel Drive (4WD): This is what is known as the four-wheel drive (4 × 4). I actually say that because it is mixed a lot with the AWD system. This system, which was first used in the history of automobile in 1905, was first produced by Subaru in the 1970s. Later, Audi and Mitsubishi applied this system to mass production cars. The four-wheel drive system is divided into two as Part Time and Full Time. Part Time Four-wheel drive systems can be activated by the driver at any time. Full Time all-wheel drive systems are automatically activated or switched on independently of the drive. a) When to Use System (Manual): 4X4 vehicles have two differentials at the front and at the rear and the rear differential is moving as standard when the drive does not engage the four-wheel drive system. The front differential is activated when the driver activates the so-called reinforcement gear. In this case, the motor power is divided into half by the front and rear differentials, and better traction is achieved especially on slopes-slippery surfaces. b) Continuously Used System (Fully Automatic): In this system, 4 wheels are continuously operating and this system does not have reinforcement. c) Self-Adjustable System according to Road Conditions (Semi-Automatic): This system is more advantageous than the Fully Automatic system. Because in this system, the driver can activate the 4 × 4 at the request of the driver and the vehicle can adjust itself according to the road conditions. In other words, with the help of vehicle speed sensors, it can be activated automatically on slippery surfaces, on slopes or in other situations where the speed of the vehicle is reduced. The driver is also informed by the 4WD mark on the instrument panel that the system is switched on. The four-wheel drive system can have positive effects on slippery surfaces and slopes, and can improve road holding in bends and sudden maneuvers. 2) All Wheel Drive (AWD): This system is actually 2WD so two drawer system. However, when the vehicle is forced, it is activated and its working principle is not mechanical but mechanical according to the 4WD system. If your vehicle has a front-wheel drive system, 100% of engine power is normally transferred to the front axle shaft. If the front wheels start to spin, part of the power lost from the front axle shaft is transferred to the rear axle shaft by an electronic system. The difference of this situation with the 4WD system is that the 4WD distributes the engine power evenly and backwardly in a possible strain, while the AWD system can transfer 90% of the power lost on the front axle shaft to the rear axle shaft. So there is an imbalance. Therefore AWD systems cannot be called 4 × 4. Another difference is that in the AWD system 4 wheels can move independently of each other.
3) Four Wheel Steering (4WS): Four Wheel Steering, which is called four wheel steering system, was first used in mass production by Japanese automobile manufacturers such as Mazda, Honda and Mitsubishi. This system has nothing to do with motor power or transmission. It has been developed for the purpose of safe driving and convenience, but nowadays, it has remained in the background with the development of automobile safety technologies and is not applied to almost any passenger vehicle. It is a system that is applied to some ladles and graders only for the purpose of convenience in the construction sector. The working principle is quite simple. When you turn the steering wheel in the right or left direction, approximately 5 to 1 of the front wheels rotate to the right or left depending on your speed on the rear wheels. This makes it easy to park your vehicle while driving at high speed and overtaking.

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