The Birth of Mankind: Turkana

This is why 1984 is still today an archaeological impact of the discovery rocked the whole world
is in progress.
The discovery is the skeleton of a young boy from Lake Turkana in northern Kenya. This skeleton of an eight-year-old child has been preserved for 1.5 million years at the bottom of the lake and is the most pristine early-human fossil ever discovered.
The kaps Turkana Boy milyon is only one of many early human fossils around the lake, and all of these fossils cover a total of four million years of human evolution. Only this part of Kenya provides incredible information about how our ancestors lived and where we came from.
More Unlike previous years, today's harsh desert environment of Lake Turkana exactly
is in the center.
About two million years ago the lake was a larger lake surrounded by a green area
. Since then, rapid climatic changes
have caused the lake to shrink and, in some cases, to disappear completely.
In non-arid terms, the lake was a comfortable area for early people to live, but also ideal for the fossilization of their remains when they died and went into the soil. The main reason for this is that the Lake Turkana is in a volcanic area. In such volcanic regions, tectonic activities can displace the Earth's crust and create new layers. The remains are preserved in different layers of different times.
Turkana. United Kingdom, Fred Spoor of University College London found "bones of these conditions
harika It is a great environment for being buried in sand and turning into sandstone. kum In
periods of heavy rainfall, these layers are eroded and
carry hidden fossils to higher levels.
Excavations in the lake and its surroundings began when Richard
Leakey, one of the employees of the Turkana Basin Institute,
directed his group to the eastern side of the basin known as Koobi Fora in 1968 .
Iy The plan in my head was to continue the excavation from one end to the other, Le says Leakey . ”The first
few years were a little adventurous, including the fact that the fossil of many species came out of the ground almost
without digging .“
In 1972, the team
uncovered a skull and limbs of a 1.9 million-year-old Homo rudolfensis , also known as bazı Skull 1470 197.
This discovery supported a new emerging idea at the time: early people had many descendants rather than a single lineage. There were three other species known to have lived in Africa during the same period: Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Paranthropus boisei. Thus, Homo rudolfensis was added.
In other words, unlike today, many human species
lived together in ancient times . According to Koobi Fora's later findings, three Homo species
lived together between 1.78 and 1.98 million years ago.
However , our knowledge of H. erectus, one of the most important human species, gained momentum
with the discovery of this fossil known as ari Turkana Child ok or oc Nariokotome Child Fakat
Evrim The child of Turkana is an enormously important fossil that has raised new questions about human evolution , ın said John Shea, a paleoanthropologist from Stony Brook University , New York , USA .

H. erectus is the first human being to migrate from Africa to Europe and Asia.
Therefore, we can say that they are our direct ancestors.
In some ways it is thought to be incredibly similar to us. He had larger brains and longer lengths than the older Homo habilis.
Also, the type of Turkana Child was more similar to us than other humanoid species. He
, like us, gathered his body weight over his pelvis as he walked.
It also had arched feet and long steps.
Turkana could also carry something with her empty hand as the boy walked.
Üm They were walking much closer to our walk than in the way our other ancestors, the humanoid and primate, had
walked, alar says Shea.
Ilar A tough runner should also be a good carrier. If you can run, you
can chase things. So what were they chasing? What were they carrying? Ne
Other studies provide clues about this.
The Turkana Child's family may be carrying spear-hunting tools because the anatomy of their hands supports the possibility of doing so. The spears are not fossilized, but a 2013 study argued that Homo erectus had evolved to be capable of launching.
On the other hand, our closest monkey relatives have almost the
ability to launch . The
ancestors , which we could call monkey rather than humanoid , spent most of their time in the trees and were probably
not good at launching.
Accordingly, Homo erectus could be hunted much more intensively than other species, so they could grow their region.
This ability was particularly beneficial at the time of the Turkana Boy, because the climate was
constantly changing. The forests where their ancestors lived were replaced by more
open pastures,
leaving little space for early humans to hide from great hunters .
There was a choice of hominins living in this period, she says. They would either retreat to the remaining wooded areas or face the dangers of pastures. Homo erectus seems to be the second option.
Thus, the advantages of crowded groups began to emerge. The groups living, working and hunting together were safer than the individuals. This may have provided Homo erectus with an instinct for them to become more social.
There is evidence that they share information and work in teams.
The axes of this period, called Acheulean, made of stone, are found throughout Africa and in other parts of the world. According to this, early people could do this instrument and share this craft with others.
The oldest known specimen of Homo erectus and the first of the workshop crafts, 1.76 million years old, was discovered in 2011 near Lake Turkana.
According to Ignacio de la Torre of the University College of London in the United Kingdom, the cookery ax was used for several million years since the start of technology. The biggest reason for this is that these axes are a multifunctional instrument in the equivalent of the Swiss army knife.
For example, these axes were ideal for smashing dead animals. Torre The
use of these axes in the separation, fragmentation and chopping of the limbs makes sense, lar he says
They are used Looking at the period of time, the sharing of information about the making and use
is thought to be easy.
But this does not mean that the Homo erectus has the language of speech. Shea had taught her to make stone tools similar to her nearly 500 students, and she had not observed that the students would not have to talk about it to teach each other. Still, it is known that the smaller-brained Homo habilis are much harder than the construction of Oldowan flintstones.
Lucy's animation. Lake Turkana also informs about human evolution before the birth of Homo
It contains.
Scientists discovered a 3.2 million-year-old Australopithecus
afarensis fossil , nicknamed Lucy, in 1974 in Ethiopia.
It was almost accepted that Lucy's species played a key role in our direct ancestors.
In October 2015, paleoanthropologist Meave Leakey
explained to the Royal Society, un Little was
known about Lucy's pre-history . All known examples belonged to much later than Lucy's age. Bilin
Le The interpretation was that there was nothing before Lucy, yorumlan adds
Leakey. A single lineage from apes to Lucy, and then our direct
ancestors. According to Leakey, this is a pointless assumption.
So Meave Leakey made it his mission to find fossils of the same age as Lucy, which
meant going back to Lake Turkana.
Leakey's team found in Lucy aged and varied e fossils on the west shore of the lake.
The team discovered a species known as Australopithecus anamensis in the 1990s , a possible ancestor of Lucy. This species, which lived four million years ago, was the oldest fossils found in Lake Turkana.
A few years later, he was again discovered on the west coast of the lake
another type known as Kenyanthropus platyops or "flat-faced man". This species
lived with Lucy's type 3.5 million years ago .
Recently , a discovery that
once again questioned what we know about our ancestors again took place in Turkana Lake, which has reached the key point for fossils.
In the summer of 2015, researchers announced that the oldest known stone tools are 3.3 million years old. Thus, stone tools that were older than any known Homo fossil showed that older species, such as A. afarensis and K. platyops, were able to make tools by destroying the assumption that only Homo species made tools.
Lar We didn't think they had the intelligence and the ability to do stone tools, ler he says
This was an important discovery. Ve It
was thought to be an important link in the emergence of the Homo and technology, ve says de la Torre, but
now its reality is doubtful.
In the light of these findings, the
importance of Lake Turkana in understanding our human evolution is clear. But this
does not mean that the region has the same importance for early people .
According to Spoor , Lake Turkana is an ideal place for conservation of fossils. "This
does not mean that man has not evolved in any other part of Africa."
For example, many of our ancestors
may have lived in rainforest with too acidic soil to protect fossils . ”The lack of evidence
does not mean evidence of absence, ıt says Spoor.
But this does not reduce the importance of the region.
A Actually, Turkana connects the dots to a certain level, Turk says Shea. The region allows
us to see and
compare more than one species with millions of years between their periods .
We are very fortunate to have the region serve almost as a geological trap, because it reveals the lives of many species from the early people to the Earth on Earth.
Source: poxox archaeology


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