Structure of Atmosphere and Gases

The atmosphere of the Earth forms many different gases. 78% of the world is nitrogen, and 21% is second place oxygen. The remaining 1% of the other gases. Some (such as helium and krypton) are chemically inert and do not react with other gases. Some other gases are capable of being a blanket for our planet. These are called maktad greenhouse gases Bunlar. Like greenhouse covers, these gases also trap heat from the sun as heat. Without their greenhouse effect, the world would be quite cold and the average global temperature would be around -18 ° C. On the surface of our planet, however, the temperature is about 15 ° C on average, and this temperature allows living.
Since the 1850s, human activities have begun to release more greenhouse gas emissions into the air. Over the years, this surplus has gradually led to a significant increase in average temperatures around the world. According to the calculations made by NASA, today's global average is 0.9 ° C higher than the average between 1951 and 1980. According to chemist Stephen Montzka's research, there are four major greenhouse gases that should be the most concerned. The best known is carbon dioxide (CO2). Others are methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). (CFCs are refrigerants that are involved in the thinning of the high-altitude ozone layer that protects the planet. They are liquidated as part of the global agreement launched in 1989).

Climate Change Chemicals

Glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising, forests are dying and wild animals are struggling to live. Modern life, which has caused a great warming starting from the last century, has created greenhouse gases for more than 650,000 years and has started to change climate by releasing heat-retaining gases. Each greenhouse gas rises just once it spreads. Some of these gases trap more heat per molecule than others. Some of them stay in the atmosphere longer than others. This is because each has different chemical properties. They are also removed from the atmosphere by different processes over time.

Carbon dioxide

The source of excess CO2 is mostly used fossil (coal, oil and natural gas) fuels. These fuels are used in all areas, from vehicles to the production of electrical or industrial chemicals. In 2016, CO2 accounted for 81 percent of greenhouse gases released. Other chemicals are more effective in raising the temperature in the atmosphere. However, CO2 is more likely to be caused by human activities. It also has the longest life. Each year a certain amount of CO2 is cleaned by growing plants. In return, more CO2 is released in the cold months when the plants cannot reach enough. CO2 is also involved in the oceans; by the organisms in the water are converted to calcium carbonate. In the end, this chemical becomes a component of the limestone, where carbon can be stored for thousands of years. This rock formation process is quite slow. Clearly, CO2 can remain in the atmosphere from decades to thousands of years.


Methane (CH4) is the main component of natural gas. A wide range of biological resources causes the formation of methane gas. These include rice production, animal feces and the disintegration of waste dumped in landfills. Methane accounts for about 10 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. The heat captured by each molecule of this gas is greater than CO2. But methane cannot stay in the atmosphere for long. It breaks down when it reacts with hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere (neutral charged OH ions from bound oxygen and hydrogen atoms). The time required for the removal of methane is about ten years.

Nitrous Oxide

Nitrous oxide (N2O) accounts for about 6 percent of the greenhouse gases released. This gas is caused by agriculture, burning of fossil fuels and sewage systems. N2O is hundreds of times more effective in heat retention than CO2. The N2O may also remain in the atmosphere for about one hundred years. Each year, only 1 percent of the airborne N2O is converted into ammonia or other nitrogen compounds that plants can use by green plants. Therefore, this natural N2O cleaning is insufficient.


CFCs and new derivatives are all produced by humans. It is used as a coolant or as a solvent in chemical reactions and in aerosol sprays. They account for only 3 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. They react and break down the ozone layer. These gases disappear only when they reach a very high layer of the atmosphere. High energy light chemicals in the stratosphere, bombs and parts. However, this can occur over a period of decades. Like other CFCs, other fluorine-based chemicals are strong molecular gases on a molecule basis. However, because their emissions are very low compared to CO2, their effects are quite low.
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