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Spending time outdoors is great for improving your mood, breathing in the fresh air and doing a healthy workout, but it's also a great opportunity to explore the extraordinary world of plants. The green inhabitants of the world have more than 375,000 species identified. Seed plants form 2/3 of them.
Seed plants (flowering plants) are examined in 2 subgroups: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
The majority of plants in the world are included in the group of angiosperms. However, gymnosperms are an important part of the ecosystem. Although the plants in both groups produce seeds, they have similar directions and have different directions. In order to better understand this important dilemma, let us open the door of the world of plants.

Gymnosperms (Open Seeds)

There are currently around 1,000 gymnosperm species in the world. It is formed by combining the words ”Gymnos inin in the sense of % of forests in our country and” Sperma ındaki meaning seed  . Of these, 300inden400 54 consist of various types of gymnosperm. Gymnosperms were equipped with ideal features to survive and develop when the first plants emerged nude million years ago , the Greek words Gymnospermae . From open-seeded plants, sylvia, conifers and ginkgoes have been replaced by ferns, which are not flowered plants during the triassic period, and have shown a great spread. Angiyosperms also began to appear in this period.

Subclasses of Gymnosperms

The main classes of the Gymnosperms group are cycas, ginkgo's, conifers and Gnetofitas. It also has two more extinct groups.
Cycas:  Although Cycas have started to decline during the Cretaceous period, there are 9 species living today. Cycas (also called cycads) are palm-like trees with thick, broad leaves that are compatible with tropical and subtropical regions. These tree species have only male or female cones. A dog with a cone only produces seeds if the tree with male cones is nearby. Insects are pollination. Color and large seeds are distributed by other animals. Swallowing seeds is dangerous for both humans and pets.
Ginkgo:  Most Gikngos are extinct. The only surviving type is the “temple or temple tree“ called Ginkgo biloba. They are usually ornamental plants and naturally grow in Chinese origin. This tree, also known as the fossil tree, elephant ear tree, Chinese fan pine, and girl hair, is considered a symbol of divinity and eternity in its homeland (China). It is interesting that the ginkgo survives for thousands of years. It produces either male or female cones such as cycas. Whip-spouted sperms swim in water to reach the egg in the female conifer. Ginkgolar, which is resistant to fire and insects, contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents.
Conifers: Coniferous  branches have more than 625 species. Conifer trees are the most well-known and common examples of open- seeded plants . Fir (fir) trees, cypress, juniper, cedar wood, redwood, pine tree, yew tree, thuja and spruce trees are coniferers (coniferous, coniferous) group.
Gnetophytes : Although gnetophytes carry gymnosperm characters, they differ in terms of leaves, wood, transmission bundles and flower structures. In addition, this class does not contain resin channels, pollination occurs with insects. Male and female cones are in separate trees and similar to the flowers of closed seedlings. When considered from these aspects, it is thought that gnetophytes, which have flat and broad leaves, are a gateway between open-seeded and covered seedlings. Ephedra (drooping sea grape) plant is an example of this class.

Open Seeds are Perennial

Open seedlings are woody, shrub or tree-shaped perennial  plants. In all seasons, green and many coniferous (in some leaves, ribbon, fan, small pulsu and hairy structure) in the trunks of open seeds in the trunks are regular and among them is cambium. Most trees in forests are coniferous. The reason why they are called open-seeded is that the seeds are not in the fruit, they are on the cones of the cones.
Generally evergreen and always green, these plants are not as different or dominant as the old one, but some of the most remarkable trees of the world. Although seed distributions are slightly more difficult and risky than angiosperms (closed seedlings), they have strengthened their place in world ecosystems with special adaptations.
Note: Leaf casting is a kind of discharge. Open seedlings do not regularly pour the leaves every year and pours a few years apart. Instead of spilled leaves, new ones emerge. Therefore, they appear constantly green.

Reproduction in Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms (open-seeded) do not have real flowers. Flowers are in the form of cones. When the cones are examined closely, it is seen that they consist of cones of cones arranged helically around an axis.
Female and male cones are in the same tree but in different branches. Meiosis in the male cones of flower dust formed by the division of pollen (pollen) wind reaches the female cone, so pollination (pollination) becomes. Since it has to be carried on the wind (transported by insects in some species), several million pollen are formed in each male cone. Pollens contain 2 or 3 air bladders that facilitate winding (anemogami). The seed sketches in the female cone are open at the top of the cone scales.
Pollen reaching to the female cones 12 to 15 months after resting fertilization takes place. Fertilization in open-seeded plants is not double as in the closed seedlings, single fertilization is seen. While the endosperm of the seedlings is triploid (with 3n chromosomes), the endospermia of open seedlings is haploid (with n chromosomes) and develops before fertilization. In addition, open-seeded (polycotyledonous) structure, 2 to 18 species can be found.
After fertilization, the zygote forms the embryo by passing the mitosis divisions. Then the seeds formed are winged structure and located on the top of the cone flakes, matures in 1lı3 years. These seeds ripen the cone, the cone flakes are opened from the ground to fly away from the environment and fall to the ground. The germination process starts when conditions are appropriate. Germination results in young seedlings. Gymnosperms do not form real fruit.

The Benefits of Gymnosperms in Human Life

Gymnosperms, which occupy a lot of space in the forests of the world, also carry industrial value. Resin is obtained from pine trees and used in painting. Wood of open seed is often used in making furniture, matches and paper. Some gymnosperms are ornamental plants and some are grown as landscaping plants. Some types of gnetophytes (eg Gnetum gnemon or Melinjo) are used in the medical field and in nutrition. The use of melange in Indonesian, Philippine and Thai cuisine is common. Vegetable soup, fried and snack crackers are produced from seeds and leaves. Red colored seeds are collected and sold in the markets established in that region.

Angiosperms (Indoor Seeds)

Angiosperms are members of the world of plants with a species of between 250,000 and 350,000 species and contain real flowers that are not in open-seeded plants. Flowers that add unique beauties to nature are the reproductive organs of plants with closed seeds. The flowers have 4 sections as the leaves, crown leaves, male organs and female organs.
The flowers offer a great advantage in reproduction and are usually twins (hermaphrodite) and often not self-fertilizing. Flowering plants also have different species of birds, insects, wind, water, etc., which increase diversity and facilitate the introduction of these ecological niches. develops special pollination relationships with. Some closed seeded species can also grow asexually. The enormous range of adaptations also allows for wide changes in the appearance of flowers and fruits with their color, leaf shape and size.
Another unique adaptation of angiosperms (closed seeds) is the formation of an endosperm which is a nutrient tissue that develops after fertilization. This tissue helps to feed the growing embryo and provides basic protection for newly emerged seedlings. Endosperms are triploid ie 3n chromosomes.

Seed is in fruit

Although all fruits are made of flowers, not every flower produces fruit. After pollination and seed development, the ovary (ovary) section of the female organ of the flower will often turn into fruit. This is a seed disintegration mechanism. Seeds that are stored and preserved in fruit (so-called closed-seeded) can be distributed over distances far from where they are located with the feces of animals that consume it as food.

Single and Double Spotted

Angiosperms are divided into two groups as monocotyl and dicotyl. Both groups have differences in properties such as root, flower, leaf, body structure and transmission bundles. The most important difference between them is cambium. The cambium texture, which allows the trunk to grow and thicken, is found in dicotyledons and not in monocots. Angiosperms which are monocotyled are herbaceous (for example, wheat, oats, barley), while those with dicotyledons (eg pears, plums, oranges, apples) are generally woody.

Angiosperms is the key point of agriculture

Angiosperms with woody and herbaceous species are the key points of agriculture in the world . Nutrients such as flour, bread, bulgur, rice and sugar, each of which has an important place in nutrition, are obtained from a plant with a closed seed. Vegetables and fruits, which are highly recommended to be present and consume on the tables, are also covered with seeds. Nature has offered various products of human beings such as parsley, onion, beans, cabbage, apples, plums, citrus fruits, watermelons, melons, carrots, peppers, leeks, potatoes and tomatoes.
In addition to food, angiosperms also play an important role in the production of some medicines and clothing such as gymnosperms. However, gymnosperms (especially pine-like conifer species) are primarily used for timber and paper production.

Last word

Every plant we see in our daily lives is a gymnosperm or angiosperm and both groups serve the global culture and ecosystem for specific purposes. Knowing the difference between these two groups helps to understand the long and complex order of terrestrial plant development throughout history and provides clues about the current course of ecosystems.
Source: poxox blogs

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