10 Modernist Art Movement

1. Surrealism 

As one of the most famous art movements of the modernist era, surrealism, by Salvador Dali's indelible work called in The determination of memory sayesinde (1931); it is remembered for producing intuitive, eye-catching and aesthetic images. In 1924, Andre Breton, one of the well-known poets and critics of his time, was inspired by the absurd tendencies of the Dadaists and the psychoanalytic writings of Sigmund Freud, and in 1924 published the ’Surrealist Manifesto D. According to the Surrealists, outside the consciousness, the realms of dream and fantasy can unite in everyday reality with elik absolute reality, a surrealism Sür. Although his best-remembered works are the works of surrealist painters such as Jean Arp, Max Ernst and André Masson, surrealists have worked in different fields such as poetry, literature, sculpture and film circles at that time; for although the Breton members favored adherence to the manifesto, many members were divided into new forms of art and continued to incorporate the techniques and motifs of surrealism in their work.

2. Dadaism 

The purpose of Dadaist art, perhaps best summarized by the famous Dadaist poet Hugo Ball, is ada an end in itself; but it is not gibi an opportunity for the perception and criticism of the times we live tan and Dadaism is full of grief, destruction and chaos, as it witnessed the widespread mass destruction of World War I. The movement is generally an international network in Zurich, Switzerland, New York, Berlin, Cologne, Hanover, Germany and Paris. Dadaists are not connected with their styles, tools or techniques, but with similar practices and beliefs. They saw themselves as a warrior against rational thought, and believed that they were responsible for the collapse of social structures, the growth of corrupt and nationalist politics, the spread of violence and war. They challenged the elitist formation of art with the works of art, such as the oluşum Marcel Duchamps Fountain) (1917), which is a porcelain urinal. They used photomontages as well as a large number of artistic tools, and protested the Nazi Party, which began to grow in Germany at public meetings. The Dadaists vigorously fought all over the world against such repressive social institutions; but by some, they are written as absurd and insignificant, based only on very strange and scattered networks.

3. De Stijl De Stijl (Dutch dair Style ıla),

while adequately summarizing the purpose of this movement, also expresses their intention to achieve this goal: with a simple, direct approach. It was founded in Amsterdam by Theo van Doesburg (the group's magazine De Stijl), a group of Dutch artists including Piet Mondrian, and Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud. It is mainly filled with a great mysticism that derives from Mondrian's commitment to theology. Although the members of De Stijl thought that Picasso and Braque could not enter the pure abstraction area enough, the movement was highly influenced by Paris Cubism. They, like the suprematists, worked mainly in an abstract manner and in the main and niche colors with plain forms such as straight lines, intersecting planar surfaces and basic geometric shapes. With these techniques, they tried to investigate the balance laws that appear both in life and in art. Although the movement consists of decorative artists such as painters, sculptors, typographers, poets and architects, Pieter Oud, who can blend the simplicity and the essence of the movement in the workers' mass housing in the most remarkable artist Hoek van Holland (1924-27)
4. Suprematism Another unique Russian Modernist movement is Suprematism. It started with Constructivism, with a stronger emphasis and adoption of abstraction ability by painting a canvas. The image is shown as the first stream using pure geometric abstraction. Kazimir Malevich is seen as the founder of the movement and has written the Suprematist manifesto with the contributions of many of his contemporaries. The name of the movement arose out of a promise by Malevich that this movement would inspire ğ the supremacy of pure emotion or perception in pictorial arts Hareket. Its main purpose is to reduce to the basics of art by using basic shapes and basic and neutral colors, usually squares, triangles and circles. Malevich gave more color and shape as he progressed in his study; but he summarized the movement in his hafifçe white on white üle pictures with a slightly drawn frame of slightly visible frames. Suprematism has often instilled spiritual and mystical feelings that have been added to abstraction, and as in the case of Constructivism, the movement ceased at its core as Soviet pressure increased.

5. Constructivism Cubism and Futurism, 

as it spread westward to Russia at the end of the 1910s, is drawn into the utopian spirit of the October Revolution, so as to serve a social purpose instead of simply making an abstract expression, It has produced a new art movement known as "Constructivism", which adopts the theory that it needs to "be built" from industry. Most of the time, Vladimir Tatlin, who was heavily influenced by the geometric structures of Picasso who studied in Paris in 1913, was the driving force of the movement. After returning to Russia, they published The Realist Manifesto in 1920, together with Antoine Pevsner and Naum Gabo, who, like Futurists and Vortisers, appreciated their functionality as well as machinery and technology. One of the most iconic works of this movement is the Third International Monument of Tatlin (1919-20), a strange spiral structure that aims to serve as a government building. Many of the Constructivists, such as the Talin, considered the painting to be a fiziksel dead çoğu art form, unless it served anything to be physically constructed. Therefore, they worked mostly in ceramics, fashion design, graphics and architecture. Due to the rise of Soviet pressure against their currents, many Structuralists have escaped Russia and the meanings they have gained from Western countries such as Germany, France and England have inspired the movement.
Vorticism Vorticism is a British art movement in particular, and its spokesperson is the famous London-based özellikle Blast V magazine. The movement pursued the same path as Futurism in terms of the machine's admiration for innovative advances in its age and its adoption of the possible virtues of the following dynamic change. Before the start of World War I, it was founded by the famous painter Wyndham Lewis and the well-known poet of the Modernist era, Ezra Pound; But while futurists were born in France and Italy and later spread to Russia, Vortisism in London remained local. The vorticists boast that they are independent of similar movements. In their literature, they used the basic words that resonated in the British shipyards and factories, and they saw abstraction in their paintings as the only way to break the ties with the oppressive and stifling Victorian past and move to a new age; But Vorticism, like Futurism, struggled to cope with the wretched destruction that was the result of the new machines that were highly praised during the First World War. When the First World War ended, T.E. The precious Vorticists such as Hulme and Gaudler-Brzeska died in action. Vortisism remained a small minority in the early 1920s.

7. Futurism

Perhaps one of the most controversial movements of the modern era is Futurism, which, while ignoring past artistic and cultural forms and traditions, is similar to humans and machines and machines, in order to embrace change, speed and innovation in society. However, there is a war and misogyny at the center of the Futurist platform. Futurism in the 1908 manifesto of Filippo Marinetti is not limited to an art form; It has been adopted by sculptors, architects, painters and writers. Pictures are usually cars, trains, animals, dancers and large crowds; and the painters borrowed the fragmented and intersecting planes of Cubism in order to glorify the virtues of speed and dynamic movement with the vibrant and impressive colors of Fauvism. The authors focused on rescuing their poems from unnecessary elements, such as adjectives and adverbs, so that the emphasis was based on the movements of the infinitive verb. In connection with the integration of the mathematical symbols, this technique has allowed them to make more declarative statements with great courage. Although they initially affirmed the merits of war, the Futurists lost their enthusiasm by the destruction of the First World War.

8.Cubism

Cubism, probably the most well-known art movement of the Modernist period, has been associated with Pablo Picasso in particular. However, Georges Braque, who is as good a rebel as Picasso, is also the leader of the movement and his paintings are almost indistinguishable. It is often thought that Cubism began exactly with the exposition of Picasso's Afrika Girls of Avignon p (1907), which shows a naked woman from a broken perspective and has an important African influence. In 1908, the art critic Louis Vauxcelles (again!) Did not have a name until he portrayed Braque's house in L’Estaque as made of cubes. The main objectives of the Cubists are to separate from the traditions of the past and to create a new style to imitate only the nature and to emphasize the flat dimension of the canvas. This effect is achieved through the use of various conflicting points in common objects such as musical instruments, pitchers, bottles and human figures. As they progressed in their work, Braque and Picasso adopted the use of a monochrome scale to emphasize the focus on the natural structure of their work. Although it is often associated with painting, Cubism has a lasting effect on many sculptors and architects of the time.

9. Fauvism

This famous avant-garde movement is considered one of the first of its kind to enrich in the early 20th century. Fovism, the forerunner Henri Matisse, owes a great deal to Impressionism because of its vibrant colors to capture landscapes and still lifes; but like Matisse, the Fovists added exaggerated sensuality to their paintings, paintings using vivid colors with raw and obvious brush strokes. Due to the excessive expression of these raw and basic techniques, art critic Louis Vauxcelles called these painters raw-colored painters ("wild monsters"). Other important Fovists include André Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck and Georges Braque.

10. Post Impressionism (Art Impressionism)

Post-Impressionism, which is considered as a mandatory pioneer in the art movement under the modernist umbrella, began in the decade of the 19th century. Movement; Paul Cézanne is famous for the unforgettable works of Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh and others. The artists of the movement, when using Impressionism's bright and fantastic colors displayed with short brush strokes, often searched for techniques that would allow them to gain a more explicit form of expression and focused on expanding their predecessor's movement, impressionism, and boundaries. Post-Impressionists, unlike many other art movements, created art works independently of others. Thus, they had the opportunity to experience various aspects ranging from condensed Impressionism to Pointillism (Puantilism), as characterized by Van Gogh, one of Seurat's most famous works, ’A Sunday Afternoon in Grande Jatte Island .

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