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In the past, young people suddenly died during a sporting event due to a heart attack. How did these deaths occur? The cause of these deaths is often the long QT syndrome, which usually does not give much notice before death.
Long QT syndrome is a heart rhythm disorder that can cause premature and irregular cardiac distortions. Rapid heartbeats from the square can suddenly faint or trigger seizures. In some cases, the heart is irregular for a long time, causing sudden death.
Long QT syndrome is a condition that can be treated. Some drugs can be taken to prevent variable heart rhythm. In some cases, the treatment of long QT syndrome may require surgery or an implantable device.

Symptoms of Syndrome

People with long QT syndrome often do not show any symptoms. The presence of the disease can be estimated by looking at the electrocardiogram results, the presence of long QT syndrome in the family, and genetic test results.
Common statements of long QT syndrome:
1) The heart is temporarily irregularly triggered to faint. Fainting can occur during anxiety, fright, or exercise. Before you fainted, dizziness, irregular heartbeat, and blurred vision may occur. But often fainting happens without any precursor symptoms.
2) Seizures: When the heart throbs irregularly, the brain can not get enough oxygen, resulting in seizures.
3) Sudden death: Usually the heart returns to normal rhythm. Sudden death occurs if the heart does not return to its normal rhythm spontaneously or if it can not return to a normal heart rhythm at the time of a defibrillator.
4) The indication of hereditary long QT syndrome may occur in the fetus or later in life. Symptoms in most people with syndrome are observed until the age of 40 years.

Causes of Syndrome

Under normal conditions, the heart pumps blood to the body at every shot. The chambers in the heart are compressed and loose to pump the blood. These movements are controlled by electrical stimuli circulating the heart and provide heart beat. After each heartbeat, the heart's electrical system recharges itself to prepare for the next heartbeat.
In the long QT syndrome, it takes longer for the heart muscles to recharge themselves normally. This electrical disturbance, which can be observed in the electrocardiogram, is called the prolonged QT interval.

Spent QT Range

An electrocardiogram (ECG) can measure electrical stimuli moving through the heart. Plug-in cables can display these stimuli on the monitor. The ECG measures electrical stimuli as five different waves. These waves; P, Q, R, S and T. The wave from Q to T shows the electrical activity in the heart chambers.
The space between the beginning of the Q wave and the end of the T wave (QT interval) refers to the time required for the contraction of the heart and the time required for the blood to reach the end of the next contraction.
Doctors may measure whether QT interval is normal. If the hanging takes longer than usual, it is called the extended QT interval. Upper limit of normal QT interval; age, sex, and heart rate vary according to the normal rate of fire.
Abnormalities in the heart's electrical charging system result in a long QT syndrome. Despite the normal structure of the heart, there are abnormalities that can persist in the electrical system. These electrical abnormalities; a hereditary mutation, medications used, or other disease outcome may occur.

Hereditary Long QT Syndrome

So far, at least 17 gende emerged hundreds of mutations were found to be associated with long QT syndrome. Approximately 75% of cases of long QT syndrome have the same three gland mutations. Mutations in genes outside these three genes were seen in a small percentage of cases of long QT syndrome.
About 20% of people with congenital long QT syndrome have negative genetic test results. On the other hand, 10% to 37% of relatives of families with genetically long QT syndrome have normal QT interval, although they carry relevant mutations.
Doctors have described two hereditary forms of long QT syndrome:
1) Romano-Ward Syndrome: It is enough to get a mutation from one of the parents in order for the syndrome to appear.
2) Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome: It usually occurs rarely and is very dangerous. In this syndrome, children are affected when they have mutations in both parents. As a result, they have a long QT syndrome and die at birth.
In addition, researchers are investigating a link between sudden newborn death syndrome (SIDS) and long QT syndrome. It has been discovered that 5-10% of newborn babies lose their end-of-life mutations causing SIDS or long QT syndrome.

Triggerable Long QT Syndrome

Certain medications, medical illnesses, or electrolyte abnormalities, such as low body-potassium ratios, can trigger the onset of this syndrome. More than 100 commonly used drugs, most commonly used, can prolong QT interval in healthy people and cause a form of triggered QT syndrome known as drug-elongated long QT syndrome.
Some of the medications that prolong QT interval and affect the rhythm of the heart; some antibiotics, some antidepressants, some antihistamines, diuretics, medications used to maintain normal heart rhythm, and some drugs that prevent nausea.
People who develop drug-induced long QT syndrome may have a genetic disorder that does not hit the heart immediately. These disorders increase the risk of developing cardiac arrhythmias with drugs.

Risk factors

Those with increased risk for inherited or triggered long QT syndrome are:
1) children with unexplained fainting and seizures, adolescents, and young adults
2) those with family members who have had fainting and seizure symptoms and have a history of heart disease
3) people with long QT syndrome
4) People taking medications known to cause extended QT interval
5) People with low potassium, magnesium, or calcium in blood levels in the case of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa


Doctor drawing ecg heartbeat chart with marker on whiteboard concept for healthcare and medicine

People with inherited long QT syndrome are often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as a seizure disorder such as epilepsy. However, the long QT syndrome may be responsible for unexplained deaths in children and young adults. For example, a young person's unexplained heart attack may be a clue to hereditary long QT syndrome in the family.

Treatment

Treatment methods; medications, surgical intervention, and implantation of medical devices such as defibrillators. The aim of the treatment is to prevent the long QT condition and sudden death in the heart. For the long-term triggered QT syndrome, the doctor may give another medication instead of the drug that triggers the syndrome. Drugs and supplements for the treatment of long QT syndrome; beta blockers, mexiletylenes, potassium supplements and fish oil supplements.

Changes in Life Style

In addition to
medications
or amelia, some changes in lifestyle should be done to reduce the risk of heart attack: 1) Avoid taking medications that cause long-standing QT interval 2) Excessive fluid intake in the presence of vomiting or diarrheal disease
3) lowering the urgent fire
4) reduction of exposure to high or scary sound
5) People excites or Distancing from pisses case
6) to avoid heavy sports or do in a safe plan in consultation with the doctor these sports
In summary; the long QT syndrome can be caused by an inherited mutation, or an environmental condition that disrupts the electrolyte balance in the body. It is very dangerous because it is not a noticeable premise sign and it can lead to sudden death. For this reason, family history or any precursor symptoms for the syndrome should promptly initiate preventive treatment methods under doctor control.
Source: poxox.com learn

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