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Prolonged exposure to the sun can cause stains on most people's skin and even burns. However, in the case of a pathological condition, even brief exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer or painful skin rashes.
Solar urticaria is a rare dermatological condition, also called solar allergy rashes. It affects 5% of the world population. People with this disease develop an itchy and red rash on their skin exposed to the sun. It can affect people from all age groups, but the most common age range is 20-40 years.
Solar urticaria; which is caused by humidity and heat, called rash. It is a specific reaction to UV rays, rather than an explicit response. In people who do not have this disease, the skin exposed to the sun does not give serious reactions. Solar urticaria rashes occur when the skin is exposed to the sun and even if the skin is covered, if the fabric is fine (if the fabric can pass the sun's rays).

Symptoms of the disease

Solar urticaria rashes; it can be red, itchy and uncomfortable. Each speck has different, circular ovules. When swelling occurs quickly, the rash looks like a scar. For this reason, the person can suffer a lot. A red rash appears immediately after the skin is exposed to the sun. An itchy and biting pain is felt. The rash disappears within a few hours of exposure to the sun. In more serious cases, people may show secondary symptoms. These indications are; headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting.

The cause of the disease

Work on Solar urticaria is ongoing and the exact cause of the UV response in this disease has not been determined. However, it has been determined that this disease is a type of allergic reaction. The reaction occurs between UV radiation and a type of chemical known as photoallergens in the body. It has not yet been determined what the photoaligning chemical is. The discovery of this chemical will allow researchers to identify the cause of the disease and develop an effective treatment method.
There are three types of light that affect the skin of solar urticaria patients. These; long wavelength ultraviolet rays (UVA), short wavelength ultraviolet rays (UVB), and ultraviolet ray-free visible light. For this reason, it is only possible for the patients to go out in the daytime with protective clothing.
How does the UV reaction occur? The reaction sends a chemical signal to a special cell in the skin of the person. This signal tells the cell to produce histamine. Histamine production is; is the method the body uses to get rid of the allergen causing the reaction. The presence of histamine also causes skin to swell and itch. Due to the itching sensation, a rash occurs when the patient's area is scratched.
Skin care products, dyes, sun creams, perfumes and detergents can increase skin sensitivity. Avoiding these products can reduce the severity of the reaction. Individuals with solar urticaria, dermatitis, and antibiotics are at increased risk.

How to diagnose the disease?

There are three types of tests used in the diagnosis of the disease. These;
1) Diagnostik phototest: In this test, the small parts of the body are exposed to different violet UV rays. Afterwards, the doctor observes whether solar urticarious specks have developed.
2) Photopatch test: When tested, different allergens are applied at low doses. When allergens are removed, they are exposed to skin light. Doctors observe the reactions that occur.
3) Photoproviation test: Deep different parts of different types and different types of UV rays are exposed for several days. Diagnosis is based on the reactions that occur in the liver.

Treatment of the disease

Antihistamine drugs can fight histamine causing dander and reduce redness and itching. For this reason, these drugs are the best methods to reduce the symptoms of solar urticaria. However, they can not prevent allergic skin reactions from taking place.
Another method of treatment is desensitization. Desensitization; is a long-term treatment that aims to prevent allergic skin reaction. In this method, the skin is exposed to some UV radiation to desensitize the skin. Over time, the appearance of spots and the severity of the disease is reduced.

Suppression of Immune System

Immunosuppressive drugs, when the skin reacts, suppress the immune system and prevent the production of histamine. But these drugs may have other side effects. For this reason, it is recommended to use this treatment method in a short time and in case of emergency.

Changes to Feeding

It can worsen the response of the person to the nutritional, solar rays. It may be advisable to remove potential allergens from their diet. But this is a complementary treatment. Further research into the relationship of diet to this disease is needed.
For solar urticaria disease, there is not yet a treatment that allows the disease to completely disappear. Existing treatment modalities may only alleviate symptoms of the disease. For this reason, solar urticaria patients should wear clothes that completely protect themselves from the sun while they are out in the daytime. The skin should be completely covered with thick and dark clothes and should be in the shade. The quality of life of solar urticaria patients is seriously affected by these difficulties when going out during the day.
Source: poxox.com learn

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