Differences Between Phenotype and Genotype

The phenotype (outer structure) defines the whole of the observable properties of a living thing. It depends on the genes that govern enzyme and protein synthesis, that is, the genotype (inheritance) and the effects of environmental conditions. For example, type 2 diabetes can be associated with both genetic predisposition and poor dietary habits. Epigenetic changes can also alter a phenotype. Epigenetics is a process that explains how environmental factors (heat, light, moisture, nutrition, smoking, stress ...) affect genes and thus the phenotype. Although the phenotype of a living thing changes under different conditions, this change is not inherited. Because genes do not change, only the behavior of genes changes.
For example, green plants are genetically suitable for chlorophyll synthesis in light and have genes that are necessary for synthesis. For example, when left in the dark for a while, the chlorophyll synthesis of corn stops and loses its color. But when it is left in the light again, it begins to synthesize chlorophyll again. Such experiments demonstrate that the effect of darkness on the phenotype is not permanent. Here, the only response is the response of the plant to environmental conditions.

Alleles and Dominant Alleles

Genes have several versions called "allele genes". Since each individual has two separate chromosomes in the same pair (the chromosome of the father and the chromosome of the mother), the phenotype of the individual depends on both. If an allele is dominant and the other is withdrawn, the phenotypic character will be the dominant allele. For example, the mutated allele responsible for cystic fibrosis is recessive. Many people are "healthy carriers" of the disease. Because the dominant normal allele means that the entity will not get sick.
There are also mutation-related dominant allele related diseases. For example, Huntington's disease is a dominant autosomal disease. A mutant of Huntington is sufficient to develop the phenotype of the allele. If both alleles are co-dominant, for example, for blood groups, A and B are codominant, and if they carry an individual B and B, they are in the EU group.

Genotype Limits in the Formation of Phenotypein

The question of whether phenotypes are important in genotyping or environmental influences can be answered as follows: When plants with different genotypes are grown together under the same environmental conditions, it appears that significant differences have emerged based on genetic causes. When individuals with the same genotypes are exposed to different environmental conditions in order to see the effect of the environment, the phenotype with the same genotype is partially different.
In humans, the effect of different environmental conditions on the same genotype has been examined and twins from a single fertilized egg have been used. Two individuals who come from a single zygote mitotic division carry the same genes and chromosomes. For this reason, genotypes are the same. These fetuses are called single egg twins (monozygotic). Even though they are found in different environments, their appearance and spiritual structures are very similar. Their sex is always the same. However, it has been seen that some of the characteristics of single twins growing in very different regions, such as health, develop differently (due to nutrition, climate etc.).

Drug Resistance Tests

Drug resistance tests allow clinicians to safely evaluate the viral resistance profile by showing that the patient's viral resistance profile is sensitive, partially sensitive or resistant. Monograms allow both genotyping and phenotyping to be viewed as a single phenotype / phenotype combination.
Both phenotyping and genotyping technology start in the same way. The viral RNA of the patient is isolated and transformed into DNA by reverse transcription by cutting the portion to be tested and then amplifying by PCR. However, the results obtained after amplification are very different:
Bir fenotip için, viral DNA segmentleri vektör yapılarına aktarılıp, bu vektörlerin virüs yapıları ile transfekte edilmesiyle psödo viriyonlar oluşturulur ve daha sonra bu yeni hibrid virüslerin ilaçlarla ne kadar sınırlandırılabildiği ile ilgili ölçümler alınır. Fenotipleme, ilaçların virüsü ne ölçüde engellediğinin doğrudan bir gözlemidir.
Bir genotip için, hastanın viral DNA’sı, bir referans dizisine kıyasla dizilir, daha sonra karşılaştırma sırasında kaydedilen farklılıklara dayanarak ilaca duyarlılık tahmini yapılır. Genotipleme teknolojisi, ilaç duyarlılığının bir tahminini sağlar.
Phenotyping and genotyping technologies provide completely different but complementary information. Each type of technology provides a different perspective and different data about the condition of the patient's viral resistance. For this reason, monogram combination tests give clinicians the widest knowledge of the virus in the patient. While genotyping provides information about key mutations, including blends, phenotyping provides instantaneous observations of viral susceptibility to drugs.
Source: poxox.com learn


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