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In the DNA of the Melanesians living in the South Pacific region, north of Australia, there are traces of a previously unidentified and extinct human race.

People from Papua New Guinea and Australia carry small amounts of DNA from relatives of extinct peoples. Research suggests that this DNA may have come from a Neanderthals or Denisovals, not a previously unknown hominid. C: Shutterstock

According to new genetic models, it is not possible that this is Neanderthal or Denisovian. This DNA, representing a third and unknown species, must have escaped the archaeologists' attention by this time.

"We are missing a population or we misunderstand something about relationships," says statistical geneticist Ryan Bohlender of the University of Texas.

Bohlender and his team were investigating the percentage of the DNA of extinct hominids still carried by modern humans today, and in earlier analyzes it was revealed that there were disagreements about our genetic involvement with Neanderthals and Denisovals. The whole story began to appear not to be restricted to these two species.

(2,500 years ago, South Pacific changed genetics but language remained the same)

This contact left a mark that could still be found even today. Europeans and Asians undoubtedly carry gene variants of the Neanderthals in their genomes.

And this is not the only thing that leaves us ...

At the beginning of the year, researchers explored some genetic variants of European descent inherited from Neanderthals. It turned out that this heritage was associated with various health problems, including more depression risk, heart attack, and a range of skin disorders.

According to a separate study published later, it was understood that genital warts (HPV, also known as human papilloma virus) in modern humans were infected with Homo Sapiens after sexual activity with Neanderthals and Denisovis after they left Africa.

Although our relationship with Neanderthals has been extensively researched, it is not clear how we interact with the Denisovals, Neanderthals' distant cousins.

Melanesian children from Papua New Guinea. C: Shutterstock

Neanderthals are well represented in the fossil record, and many Neanderthal remains have been unearthed in Europe and Asia. But what we have about Denisovals is a finger bone and a few teeth in a cave in Siberia in 2008.

Using a new computer model to quantify Neandertal and Denisovian DNA carried by modern humans, Bohlender and his colleague found that Europeans and Chinese carried similar amounts of Neanderthal DNA: about 2.8 percent.

(Denisovan DNA Found in Modern Melanese)

This result is quite similar to previous work. It was estimated that Europeans and Asians, on average, carried 1.5-4% Neanderthals DNA.

But things have become a bit more complicated when it comes to modern societies living for the DNA of Denisovan, especially in Melanezia (Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, West Papua and the Maluku Islands).

Hesman Saey,
"According to Bohlender's accounts, there is no evidence that Europeans carry Denisovan DNA, while people in China have only 0.1 percent, but in Papua New Guinea, 2.74 percent of DNA is from Neanderthals It is coming.

And Bohlender estimates that the amount of Denisova DNA found in Malanese people is about 1.11 percent, not 3 to 6 percent predicted by other researchers.

Bohlender and his colleagues investigating the Denisovian dispute had the result that a third hominid group might have been involved with the ancestors of the Melanesians.

This work is supported by a separate study of researchers at the Danish Museum of Natural History. In this study, 25 local DNA samples from 83 Aborigines and Papua New Guinea were analyzed.

As previously reported, these indigenous Australians were the most comprehensive genetic study to date and showed that they are the oldest permanent civilization on earth. Their dates are up to 50,000 years ago.

(The Aborigines are based on the first settlers 50,000 years ago)

But the results would have revealed something else - the DNAs there were very similar to the Denisovians, but the distance between them was too high for researchers to suggest that the DNA of the people there could come from a third, undefined species.

Eske Willerslev says: "We can not prove this until we have more concrete evidence of this third human being, and we should point out that Bohlender's estimates have not yet been officially publicized, they may change with further investigation."

The evidence shows that our interaction with old people is much more complicated than we had expected.

We do not see them in the fossil record, it does not mean they do not exist, it is not easy to protect the evidence for tens of thousands of years, and in particular they have to be in the right place at the right time to find them.

Researchers hope that as we explore the genetic makeup of the oldest societies, we will have more clues that we will get from our rich and complex history.

Source: poxox.com archaeology

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