what is sleep

In humans and all other mammals, birds and fish need sleep to be able to perform their daily function. One third of human life goes through this natural resting form. In the 24-hour cycle of the day, the body naturally rests in the sleeping process and the memory is restructured. Sleep sleep is also necessary for psychological renewal. Throughout this process, we are free from the complexity of thoughts we live in during the time we are awake, our nervous system rests and the immune system deals with repairs. We have the body and our mind to be healthy so that we do not come from the tops of events, activities and problems we encounter in everyday life. We have to sleep in order to achieve this.

Observations in a sleeping person are that the person is mostly lying and eyes closed, breathing slower and rhythmically, his belts fully relaxed, and hearing nothing unless it is a very loud sound. During the sleeping process, the person's heartbeat is also slowed down and dreaming occurs. Dreams have always been regarded as one of the most interesting experiences of sleep, and many people who do not forget the dream they see dream of needing to dream a dream in order to give a meaning to their dream. A person who is asleep is indifferent to the majority of things happening around him; but is separated from a comatose man by the possibility of awakening in case of adequate external intervention.

Sleeping Periods
When a sleeping person is observed, sleep does not seem to be a very stable event. The person who begins to sleep is a little nervous at first, opens his eyes immediately in case of a slight voice or warning that his feet are moving and sometimes jumping over. Then he goes into a deeper sleep and decreases his sensitivity to external stimuli. Observing carefully, it is noticed that the eyeballs move under the closed eyelids. These changes in sleep indicate a standard structure in the brain electroscope where electrical activity of the brain is monitored. This structure is called the sleep cycle. An adult person completes sleep cycles ranging from 4 to 6 during the night and each cycle contains 2 periods in itself.

During REM sleep, the body is immobile and rapid eye movements occur under closed eyelids. During this period when most of the dreaming events are happening, the amount of blood going to the brain increases while the pulse and blood pressure fluctuate. The REM period, which occurs 30-40 minutes after the drowsiness of the chest, lasts for 10-15 minutes and the brain goes back to the NREM period. During a sleep of 80-100 minutes repeated to the Rem period 6-7 times are entered and exited. This period is even longer in children.


The NREM period is the period when eye movements are not seen during sleep, and when there is little movement of the body. This period, when the heart and blood pressure falls, the blood flow to the brain decreases and the breathing slows down, takes about 1.5 hours and divides into 4 phases: The first phase, which accounts for 5 percent of the total sleep duration, is the sleep induction phase. During this time, brain functions are 50 percent less and sleeping is also superficial. In the second phase, also known as the light sleep period, sleep is superficial. In the meantime, the brain makes deep sleep preparations. Her heart rate is low and her body temperature is low. The third and fourth stages of the NREM period are deep sleep periods.

Sleep duration
It is known that restructuring the memory, resting psychologically, and synthesizing various substances and hormones occur during certain periods of sleep, as well as many unknown things about sleeping. The duration of sleep varies depending on factors such as age, gender, and weight of people. Children sleep more than adults. A newborn baby sleeps 9 to 10 hours a day in elementary school, while an average of 16 hours a day sleeps. Adequate and regular sleep is of great importance in terms of a child's growth and mental development.

The sleeping times of people vary depending on such factors as age, sex, and weight. There are people sleeping for 12 hours, sleeping 4 hours. But to an average, many adults sleep between 6 and 8 hours. Most people get sleep cycles that will last until the age of 45 when they are 16-17 years old. From middle ages the sleeping period decreases and the sleeping character starts to change. During this period of life, people have longer sleep periods of superficial sleep, and sleep less during dream-related phases. In young people the situation is exactly the opposite. Calculation of the sleeping period that the person needs is done as follows: One needs to sleep for 1 hour for every 2 hours when he is awake. At the end of a 16-hour day, the young person's sleeping time is 8 hours. As age progresses, the situation changes; the person needs to sleep for 45 minutes for every 2 hours he / she is awake. So an elderly person needs 6 hours to sleep after 16 hours.

A sleep deprivation occurs when there is not enough time for sleep. Insomnia causes sleepiness during the day, slowing down in thinking and learning processes, and causing problems in the decision-making process. It has been determined that insomnia affects older people more than young people and that gender is also a factor that can make a difference in the effect of insomnia. After insomnia, women come to them more quickly than men.

Sleeping disorders
The first of the 3 main forms of sleep disorders is insomnia and it is widespread at last, which affects human health and quality of life negatively. It is possible to treat the problem of insomnia when it is diagnosed and diagnosed by scientific methods. Sleep disturbances, known as daytime sleepiness, are caused by various sleep disorders, primarily sleep apnea and narcolepsy. This problem can cause accidents with various diseases and some problems in business life and leads to a part of traffic accidents according to the researches. The third problem in the order of sleep disorders is unconscious movements during sleep. This often occurs in children and adolescents, and includes problems such as walking in sleep, gumming during sleep, speech, nightmares. It has been understood that the appearance of these tables, which should be considered with careful planning of treatment, in middle and older ages is related to some diseases.

Suggestions for a Good Sleep
Certain conditions must be met for a healthy sleep. It is necessary to keep the sleeping hours regular, to avoid drinking caffeinated beverages for a few hours and to stop eating and drinking at least 2 hours before going to bed. All the blood of a person who eats before bedtime is collected and the body continues to function normally. It is important to remember that the person is constantly in the NREM sleep phase, that is, Rem can not go to sleep. The end result is that one will feel tired as if he has never slept in the morning. Regular exercise is also among the possible ways to sleep well. Sleeping during daytime is not recommended. It is necessary to choose bedding that sleeps, does not chill and does not sweat in a bedroom protected by sound, heat and light.

Forcing yourself to sleep often causes sleep to escape further. In such a case it would be more accurate to read relaxing books or listen to relaxing music. Taking a warm shower before sleep is also a good way to sleep. It is important to be calm and relaxed from a mental point of view. Keeping the feet warm can make sleep come.
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