what is plagiarism?

Plagiarism is a word that is quoted, and is beyond the scope of Turkish equivalency which is accepted by the TDK. To us, this is the idea of theft ...

What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism is to show an idea that does not belong to you as your own idea, that is to steal someone else's idea. In addition to the idea of theft of ideas, this situation is a usurpation of thought; It is labor thrill.

Plagiarism is gripping thought.

Plagiarism, scientific studies, literature, art, crafts; In short, there can be antagonism wherever a person is. It is a product of mentality that thinks that thinking is "free." So plagiarism is directly related to the notion of ethics. Recently, the spread of plagiarism cases in Turkey, Turkey's plagiarism serious harm to the lack of scientific ethics law in preventing and of course there are also those most affected science.



Among the reasons for the recent increase in plagiarism is the widespread use of the internet, especially the frequent use of the social square. Lakin, plagiarism; since the writing was found. There is a history of plagiarism in this respect. Moreover, this date is for both the east and the west.

We will discuss the history of plagiarism in Western and eastern countries, the measures taken for plagiarism, discussing the situation of plagiarism in our country, and discussing the contributions of technology to plagiarism. While talking about these issues, the concept of plagiarism for the East is one of the open-source Encyclopaedia of Islam; Plagiarism for the West is also described in Walter Ong's Written and Oral Book; Abba, Oxford, Harvard University.

What do you mean by plagiarism in the East?

We think that the eastern world has been dealing with literature and art earlier than the western world, and now we will declare that it is known. But we have to evaluate plagiarism by remembering this situation. Because plagiarism must be literature, art and science. These are especially words and poetry; that is, literature has existed in the Arab world since the Revolution. The Arabs made the wars and the peace with words and poetry; at least in the old times ..

Plagiarism is defined literally as "plagiarism of the others, taking the strings and showing them as if they were their own, or embracing the subjects of others and describing them in a different way, plagiarism" (TDK, Contemporary Turkish Dictionary, "plagiarism"). Actually plagiarism comes from the word nihla / nuhla which means litigation. Arabic. In Arabic literature, the term "serika" is also used to refer to sirkat, which means "thief" instead of "plagiarism", which means "stolen word or poem". As you can see, the Arab literary critics, scholars, call this the direct theft.

The reason why plagiarism is considered for a long time in the sense of "quote" is that some authors use "ahz" instead of plagiarism, and use quotations and quotation - quotes in the East.

Arabic critics have been busy many times on the subject of stolen words or poetry. In other words, critics have to distinguish between plagiarism and quotation, as well as plagiarism. Different opinions have been put forward on this issue, such as EBU AMR B ALA, and very close to perfection such as MUTEKBBI have been received.

You think that plagiarism is just the problem of this period. An Umayyad poet has used these words for his period: "We poets are more thieves than jewelers" (Islam Encyclopedia, Material of plagiarism, Main Source MERZUBANI, p.225). Of course, this will be the subject of another article, even if it is excluded that thieves are thieves at the time of the transfer.

Every resemblance in the works is not plagiarism. In this respect, the elegant word was spoken by EBU AMR B. ALA "Poetry is a wide sandy beach with numerous footprints on it" (quoted in the Encyclopedia of Islam, originally written by Abu Amr B. Ala). There was a distinction between similarity and quotation and Arab criticism. If a poet wrote similar words with an equivalent poet in his own age, TEVARUH called it SERICA if he had said something similar to the words of a poet living in a previous era. Some critics have enlarged the boundaries of tevaruh and counted the similarities of poets at different levels. Besides, it is not only the similarities of words. Many critics are not just the similarity; also examined the similarity of meaning.

During these periods there were critics who did not consider plagiarism a crime. Lakin is not subject science; when literature is plagiarism, even plagiarism is even confused. In this respect, many unspoken words in the Arabic critic world have made it clear that there is no unspoken poetry, and that there is no unspoken word or idea, and that plagiarism has never been considered again. If we talk about literature, it is not the most important thing to say to these critics; it is the process. Because of this, plagiarism is seen as a kind of art of quotation art and as a line of art of quotation. This view can be the subject of poetry for literature. There may be millions of poems, novels, stories that deal with death, but only one is good for you; that goodness is not a matter; it is the way the mode works.

In the East, works of plagiarism began to be written in the time of the Abbasids. Moreover, since the beginning of the Abbasid period works on seric and plagiarism have been seen. Of course, the nazire phenomenon is also important here. Since the time of the Umayyad, plagiarism has also been a nazire. Nazire, a poet; it means to imitate, to rewrite the poem of a favorite poet with the same metric. The poet who wrote Nazire is a good poet. The most poet who wrote poetry was the most imitated poet, the most emulated poet. But many nazirin seems to be plagiarism and this issue has been discussed since the Umayyad period.

Plagiarism of Turkish Literature in old Turkish literature

Sünbülzade Vehbi's lines express the following punishment for plagiarism:

Sirkat-i poetry needs kat-i zeban

Such is the belief that the fetwa-yi Sühan

Sirkat-i poir is a term used instead of plagiarism; means poetry thief. The poet who made this is called "Düzd-i Sühan", the word thief. In this sense, the Sünbülzade Vehbi means: According to the promises and the belagatine rules, the poetry theft must be cut off!

Plagiarism is also referred to in old books as "an illness in which the poet survives" (Islamic Encyclopedia, plagiarism p.350). Moreover, terms have been developed according to the types of plagiarism or plagiarism.

In general, Turkish literature was seen as a suicide in the Ottoman period, such as the adaptation of Arabic and Persian literature to the Turkic language. In this adaptation the redefins could be the same, the notions could be the same, and even the meaning could be the same. The great poets, the poets who were called in the poetry councils, could call it "quote" when they did these suicides.

Plagiarism was a situation that could be controlled on a written note. In this respect it is very difficult to trace the plagiarism in folk literature ...

What does pledge in the West mean?

Plagiarism begins with writing. It was understood that writing was a place to convey ideas, and thoughts were kept in writing and made permanent. Since the beginning of earning money in the eastern and western countries with thought and literature, thefts, or plagiarism, have also begun to be seen. In Europe, where knowledge, writing, money, thought is considered a commodity, thought of robbery as a massacre or theft. Ultimately, when thinking and writing become a profession, the situation has extended to business ethics.

Printmaking, the people of the West came to the world more and more people began to spread their thoughts more easily. Slowly the idea of ​​the collapse of the aristocratic sector, the spread of education, the acceptance of science and art from the church administration, the state and then the universities and the art academies became a monument. While Europe was linked to Renaissance and pre-Reformation surname and muscle power, Reform and Renaissance then came to mind and ring to lean on. Those who used to work in the past or in the church, or only art and science in the name of aristocracy; now they have become more familiar with their thoughts. This situation, that is, the spread of ideas, also revealed the idea of ​​overthrowing ideas. Was not it in the East? Of course it happened. This situation changed with the fact that in the East the poets and scholars were under palace protection and the palaces were demolished and the republics were prosperous. While the artists and scholars grew up in the Ottoman Empire, our intellectuals began to emerge from the village. This not only enabled the spread of ideas, but also led to the emergence of unnecessary ideas or ideas. Until today, this situation did not have any legal sanction. So it's like being jailed. However, there are many cases that have gone from the academia to the removal from the office due to exclusion or disciplinary punishment and even to the receipt of the title.
But in the western world at this time, plagiarism is not as grave as the old one. Later on, questions about whether or not the plagiarism witnessed are being questioned from above. Plagiarism is not questioned if it is not noticed.

The positive and negative effects of technology on plagiarism.

Technology has increased plagiarism. Especially in Twitter, you can copy an idea, without any sanctions, and show it like your own idea. When Twitter is examined, you will see that the same idea is repeatedly "twit" with the same words. The same goes for Facebook and even Instagram. Because the situation that you call plagiarism is not a copy of a text. A picture, photo or video can also be played or copied.

In addition to this, the ability to put on the Internet, the history of articles, theses, scientific and artistic work, and the ability to save the internet until the time of its release makes it easier to trace the plagiarism. Even the scripts can be checked by browsing the entire internet base. There are originality programs for this. But of course you have to put the person's thesis or work on the internete, so that the database is overlapped.

Solutions of plagiarism cases ...

Plagiarism cases must be kept in common with theft all over the world. The fact that ideas are abstract does not mean that they can not be stolen, because ideas are already written on paper and become concrete. In this respect, classical punishments are not a solution to exclude them from academia or the art world because they do not comply with the rules of morality. These things must be court, people call their rights. It should form an ethics committee and certainly should not be accompanied ..
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