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Living things have the energy requirements they provide from the food to survive. While some creatures produce their own food, others acquire it from other creatures. In addition, a group of living things also feeds on the wastes and wastes of other living things. Therefore, according to the ways in which the living beings are fed, they are divided into producers, consumers and separators.

Producer Live
They are called living creatures that produce food by themselves, photosynthesis, sunlight, minerals in the earth and water. Plants, water algae, planktones, photosynthetic single cells are among the members of this group.

Consumer Living

Consumers are divided into living creatures who meet their food from other creatures:

- Herbivores (Herbivores): This group, which is fed with plant organisms, consists of Gevisgetiren, rodent mammals, insects, crustaceans and molluscs. For example, beef, sheep, goat, camel, horse, donkey, zebra, deer, rhinoceros, elephant, etc. countable.

- Meat (Carnivores): It covers a wide variety, not alike, and meaty species. For example, cat, dog, ferret, sea elephant, seal, tail, eagle, lion, snake, etc. countable.

- Hepatos (Hepoburlar): Human beings, both meat and grass, are composed of live animals such as crow, bear, monkey, sparrow, turtle.

Parser Creatures

This group of fungi, also known as caries, and some bacteria, take part in every step of the food pyramid and use both the producers and the consumers to measure and waste their nutrients. Nitrogen emerging after decomposition and mixing with soil is reused by the producers and the nutrient cycle is maintained.

Food Chain, Food Network and Food Pyramid

In any terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem formed by the interrelationships and interactions of living (animals, plants, organisms) and inanimate (sun, air, earth, water) entities, a food chain constitutes the transfer of matter and energy from consumer life to consumer life.

When a food chain sample is examined it can be seen that the first ring of the chain is always made up of producer beans (for example vegetables), the second ring of consumer beasts fed by producer bees (for example, rabbit fed with vegetables), the third ring of consumer bees fed second- ), and the fourth ring is composed of third-generation consumer creatures (such as rabbits or eagle-hunting eagles) that are fed with consumer animations on the first and second levels.

The intermingling of more than one food chain creates a "food web". For example, if we take the path from the example above, the vegetables do not consume only rabbits, but are consumed by too many consumer beings here. When each of these is thought of as a chain of a different chain, a very complex network emerges. For example, people do not eat worms, but they eat chicken that is fed with worms. In addition, the worm does not only eat chickens but also feeds on other creatures than chicken wastes.

If a food pyramid is formed by way of the above chain and network examples, the energy transmitted is gradually reduced as the top consumer from the lowest producers goes to the living. In addition, as the food pyramid moves towards the hill, the toxic substance accumulation increases, while the biomass and live number decrease.

Photosynthesis (Illumination)

Photosynthesis is the production of sugar and oxygen using light energy by producer living things with the chlorophyll molecule. Chlorophyll is found in chloroplasts in the cells of plants. Chlorophyll is not found in non-light parts of plants such as root cells. In some bacterial and algal cells capable of photosynthesis, chlorophyll is found in the cytoplasm. When the light reaches the chlorophyll in chloroplasts of the plant, chlorophyllers convert the light energy to chemical energy. During photosynthesis, the producer produces glucose and oxygen using carbon dioxide from the air, light from the sun, water from the soil and mineral salts.

Photosynthesis, which is completely in the dark, does not occur only with the sunlight. Artificial light can also be used. Different colors of light affect the speed of photosynthesis. While red and purple light give the best result, photosynthesis slows down in green light due to plant green light reflection. Other factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis are the amount of carbon dioxide, the amount of water, the intensity and temperature of the light. However, when the increase in the value of these factors reaches a certain point, the rate of photosynthesis is fixed or, for example, at temperatures above 30 degrees, the speed decreases as the enzymes in charge are broken. The rate of photosynthesis also depends on the hereditary properties of the plant, ie the number of chloroplasts, the amount of chlorophyll, the size of the leaf surface.

Photosynthesis and Respiration

There are two types of respiration: oxygenated breathing and oxygen-free breathing. Some living things are turned into energy by their lungs, some by their skin, and others by their breathing gills. Plants are also picked up by pores in the oxygen leaves of the air and only breathing in the dark when they are both photosynthesis and respiration in the light environment. "Organic respiration" of mitochondria occurs when organisms with high build and high energy requirements. With glucose and oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and energy equations are established. When oxygen is completely dissolved in the respiration, more energy is obtained.

In the "oxygen-free breathing" that takes place in the cytoplasm, the nutrients are broken down into energy without using oxygen. Here, glucose, lactic acid and energy equations are established. The anaerobic respiration of bacteria, fungi, and some single-celled organisms also occurs in highly-organized organisms when necessary. For example, when oxygen supplied to the human muscle cells is insufficient, oxygen-free respiration enters the muscle cells.

Producer creatures produce glucose and oxygen using photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water. Consumer creatures produce carbon dioxide, water and energy using glucose and oxygen by breathing in the opposite way. Thus, photosynthesis and respiration form a loop.

Substance Cycles (Cycles)

The movement of substances such as water, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, etc., which are necessary for the life of living things, between live and inanimate beings is called "matter cycle". It is also necessary that all the materials used to sustain life in the world can be produced at the same time as they are lost.

- Water cycle:

From the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, water emerging from the atmos- phere is concentrated in the atmosphere and again mixed with soil, ground and underground water resources with rainfall. In addition, water is produced as a result of living oxygenated breathing. The water cycle takes two different forms, "short cycle" and "long cycle". Steam is a short cycle of returning to the earth with precipitation such as rain, snow, and fullness. In the long cycle, the water vapor, which consists of the respirations of the creatures and the theses, returns in the same way to the land and sea with precipitation. Some of this water feeds underground waters.

- Carbon Cycle:

The carbon, which is the building block of all organic compounds, is found in nature as both mineral and organic compounds. While plants convert carbondioxide to carbohydrates with the help of sunlight and water, some bacteria also synthesize organic matter through "chemosynthesis" from inorganic compounds such as iron, sulfur, without light energy. Carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere at the end of respiration is reused by photosynthesis by the producers. When they die, they become fossil fuels such as oil and coal. The use of these fuels also emits carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

- Oxygen Conversion:

Oxygen, which is dissolved in water and gas as air, is the most common element after aztotane in the atmosphere. The waters are the main source of oxygen, and the oxygen that combines with the respiratory-ending hydrogen turns into water again. Algae (water algae) cover a large proportion of the world's oxygen. In oxygen breathing, atmospheric carbon dioxide is given, while during the photosynthesis, this carbon dioxide is used to produce oxygen.

- Nitrogen Cycle:

Nitrogen, which is also found in structures with vital importance such as proteins, enzymes and DNA, is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. Nitrogen, air to soil, producer from the soil, life from the producer to the living creature, and again to the soil and air to form nitrogen cycle. Electric discharges in atmospheric events such as lightning and lightning form nitrate and nitrogen together with precipitation. The nitrogen that can not be used directly by the living beings, the bacteria in the soil bring the form that the producer living beings can use. Nitrogen wastes in the ground are also gaseous atmospheres given by some bacteria.

- Phosphorus Conversion:

In the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecule, phosphorus in the cell membrane, bones and teeth are in the same state as other elements. Phosphorus compounds dissolve by reacting with other compounds such as nitrate and sulfuric acid, and phosphate salts can be absorbed into plants. When the plants are defeated by the consumer beings, the phosphor is indirectly in vain. Organic phosphates revert to soil when the organisms' dead bodies are converted into inorganic states by the decomposing organisms.

- Sulfur (Sulfur) Conversion:
Sulfur, which has an important place in the biosynthesis of proteins, exists in various forms such as element, sulphide and sulphate. Bacteria are converted to hydrogen sulfide, then sulfide and sulphate, firstly organic sulfur. Sulphates are used in the biosynthesis of proteins by the producer organisms and are transferred to consumer vigor. Organic wastes restart this process and cycle between the organisms and the environment. Sulfur, which is also found in oil and coal structures, is mixed with sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere by using these fuels.

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