history of the internet

The roots of the Internet were published in 1962 by J.C.R. We can find it in the concept of Galactic Network, which is open to discussion at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), one of Licklider's largest universities in America. Licklider stated that anyone who wants to have a globally connected system with this concept can access data and programs from anywhere. In October 1962, Licklider headed the computer research department of the American Military Research Project (DARPA - Defense Advenced Research Project Agency). Lawrence Roberts and Thomas Merrill, who worked as researchers at MIT, realized that computers first 'talk' to each other in 1965.

At the end of 1966, Roberts started working at DARPA and made the ARPANET project proposal. The first connection in the ARPANET framework was made in 1969 with four centers and the first appearance of the internet with connections between the hosts. The first four centers that made up ARPANET were the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), the University of Utah, and finally the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) (Gromov, 1998).


In 1971, the Network Control Protocol (NCP-Network Control Protocol) began to work under a protocol named. A successful demon- stration of ARPANET with the NCP was carried out in Konferansta, the International Computer Communications Conference (ICCC) held in October 1972. Also this year, electronic mail (e-mail) was first used in ARPANET. A new protocol was introduced in ARPANET on January 1, 1983, called the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP / IP). TCP / IP has taken its place as the main network of today's Internet network.

In the mid-1980s, the American military computer network (DOD) affiliated to the Ministry of Defense left ARPANET and established its own network with the name MILITARY NET. In 1986, the American scientific research institute 'National Science Foundation' (NSF) put forward a comprehensive package of proposals for the establishment of five large supercomputer centers nationwide for ARPANET. ARPANET was organized as NSFNET with the subsidy of the American government. In 1987, with its reorganization plan, NSFNET announced that it would operate a powerful spine at 1.5 Mb / s (previously 56 Kb / s) on seven regional spots.

NSFNET has started to operate under the agreement of NSF with the organization of universities in Michigan State called Merit. After a while, NSFNET was operated by Merit, along with US giant PC company IBM and MCI. Established in 1990 to operate NSFNET, it was called 'Advanced Network Services' (ANS-Advance Network Services). The process of establishment of the EU was also the beginning of the privatization process of the internet backbone that developed in the US in the 1990s.

The privatization process, which began in 1990 with the joint venture of NSFnet and private companies, was completed in May 1995 with NSF's complete withdrawal from the Internet backbone operations. Since 1995, the US Internet backbone operation is entirely handled by private operators


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