What is the tremor disease, how are the symptoms ?

Tremor is unintentional and uncontrollable rhythmic movements seen in one or more parts of the body. It is most common in the hands, but it is a common movement disorder in the arms, head, vocal cords, trunk and legs. Shivering may occur anywhere and any time. This is usually the result of a problem in the part of the brain that controls muscle movement. It may occur sporadically (on its own) or as a result of another disease. It should be noted that muscle spasm, muscle twitching and tremor are not the same. Muscle spasm is the involuntary contraction of the muscle. Muscle twitching is an uncontrolled twitching movement of a small part of a larger muscle. This twitch can be seen under the skin.
Although it can be seen at any age, tremor is more common among middle-aged and older adults. The disease usually affects men and women equally. Shivering is not always serious, but in some cases it may indicate a serious illness. Tremor is not life threatening, but it can make it difficult or even impossible to perform work and daily life tasks.
What are the causes of tremor?
Tremor is usually caused by a problem in the deep part of the brain that controls movements. Most types of tremor do not have a known cause, but there are some forms of inheritance. Tremor may occur on its own or may be a symptom associated with various neurological disorders, including:
• Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

* Stroke
* Traumatic brain injury
* Neurodegenerative diseases affecting parts of the brain (eg, Parkinson's disease).
Other known causes include:
* Use of certain drugs (specific asthma medications, amphetamines, caffeine, corticosteroids, and medications used for certain psychiatric and neurological disorders)
* Dependence on alcohol dependence or release phase
* Mercury poisoning
* Overactive thyroid
* Liver or kidney failure
* Anxiety or panic
What Are Tremor Symptoms?
Tremor manifests itself in some symptoms. These symptoms may be one of the following.
* Rhythmic tremors in hands, arms, head, legs or trunk
* Shaky sound
* Difficulty in writing and drawing problems
* Keeping spoons, utensils, and control problems in
some times it can also be triggered or worse.
How is Tremor classified?
Tremor can basically be divided into two main categories:
Resting tremor occurs when the hands are resting on the lap and the muscles relax. With this disorder, a person's hands, arms or legs can be shaken and trembling, even at rest. Shivering usually affects only hand or fingers. Such tremors are usually seen in people with Parkinson's disease, and patients are called hast pill-roling tremor “because they make circular fingers and hand movements similar to those of small objects or pills.
Action tremor occurs by the voluntary movement of the muscle. Most tremor types are considered to be action tremor. Action tremor has several subcategories, many of which overlap.
Postural tremor occurs when a person has a position like gravity, for example, by extending his arms and holding something.
Kinetic tremor is associated with any voluntary movement such as moving wrists up and down or closing and opening eyes .
The purposeful tremor comes with a targeted, purposeful movement, such as lifting a finger to touch the nose. As they approach their goals, the individual's tremors typically increase.
Task-specific tremor is seen only when performing highly skilled, targeted tasks, such as handwriting or speech.
Isometric tremor occurs during a voluntary muscle contraction that does not accompany any movement, such as a heavy book or a dumbbell being held in the same position.
Different Tremor Types
Tremor is often classified by its appearance, cause, or origin. There are more than 20 types of tremor. Some of the most common types of tremor are:
Essential tremor (previously called benign essential tremor or familial tremor) is one of the most common movement disorders. The exact cause of essential tremor is unknown. For some people, this flicker is light and stable for years. Shivering is usually seen on both sides of the body, but the dominant hand is more noticeable because it is action shake.
The essential feature of essential tremor is that it is on both hands and arms, during movement and while standing. Additional symptoms are trembling as the head moves ar yes i or “no Ek. The sound vibrates when the vibration affects the larynx or throat. In essential tremor, both shaking can cause problems during writing, drawing, drinking water from a cup, or using a device such as a computer.
The tremor frequency (swinging speed) may decrease as the person ages, but the severity of the person that affects the ability to perform certain tasks or activities in daily life may increase. Increased excitement, stress, fever, physical fatigue, or low blood sugar can trigger and / or increase the severity of tremor. Although tremor starts at any age, it may occur for the first time in adolescence or in middle age (between 40 and 50 years of age). Taking small amounts of alcohol can help reduce essential tremor, but the mechanism behind it is unknown.
Approximately 50 percent of cases of essential tremor are thought to be caused by genetic risk factors. Children who have a parent with familial tremor have a higher risk of developing the disease. Familial forms of essential tremor are usually seen in the early stages of life.
Essential tremor has not been associated with any disease for many years. However, some scientists believe that essential tremor is associated with a slight degeneration of certain regions of the brain that control movement. This thought is an ongoing debate in the field of research in the scientific world.
Dystonic tremor occurs in people affected by dystonia. Dystonic tremor is usually seen in young or middle-aged adults and may affect any muscle in the body. Symptoms can sometimes relax with complete relaxation. Although some of the symptoms are similar, dystonic tremor is different from the essential tremor in some respects.
Dystonic tremor:
* Strong muscle spasms or cramps due to abnormal body posture
* Essential tremor may affect the same parts of the body, but at the same time no other movement in the head, hands or arms.
* Can mimic rest tremor as seen in Parkinson's patients.
* The severity of the dystonic tremor can be affected by touching the affected body part or muscle. and tremor movements are ”jerky ve or irregular rather than rhythmic.
Cerebellar tremor is a slow, high amplitude (easily visible) tremor of the extremities (eg, the arm, leg) that typically arises at the end of a purposeful movement, such as pressing a button. Cerebral damage is caused by damage to pathways leading to stroke or other brain areas originating from the tumor. Damage may also be caused by hereditary degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or ataxia (where individuals lose control of the muscles in the arms and legs) and Fragile X syndrome (a distinct disorder with various intellectual and developmental problems). It may also be caused by chronic injury of the cerebellum due to alcoholism.
Psychogenic tremor (also known as functional or functional tremor) may appear as any form of tremor. Symptoms may change, but they often start suddenly and affect all body parts. Shivering increases in times of stress and diminishes or disappears when attention is distributed. Many individuals with psychogenic tremor have an underlying psychiatric disorder, such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder.
Physiological tremor is seen in all healthy individuals. It is rarely seen in the eye and is typically in the form of a fine shake of both hands and fingers. It is not a disease, it is a normal phenomenon that results from physical features in the body (rhythmic activities such as heartbeat and muscle activation).
Increased physiological tremor is a more evident physiological tremor that can be easily seen. It is not usually caused by a neurological disease, but by some drugs, a lack of alcohol, or a reaction to medical conditions, including an overactive thyroid and hypoglycemia. Generally recyclable after correcting the cause
Parkinson's tremor is a general symptom of Parkinson's disease, but not all patients with Parkinson's disease have tremor. Generally, symptoms include flickering at one or two hands at rest. It can also affect the chin, lips, face and legs. The tremor may initially only be seen in one limb or only on one side of the body. As the disease progresses, it can spread to both sides of the body. Tremor often worsens in the presence of stress or excessive excitement. More than 25 percent of people with Parkinson's have action-related tremor.
Orthostatic tremor is a rare disease characterized by rapid muscle contractions in the legs while standing. People often have a feeling of being unstable or unbalanced. When patients want to stand up and walk, they should appear and sit. Since the tremor is at a very high frequency, it may not be visible to the naked eye, but it can be felt by touching the thighs or calves or by a doctor who examines the muscles with a stethoscope. In some cases, tremor may become more severe over time. The cause of orthostatic tremor is unknown.
How is Tremor Diagnosed?
Tremor is diagnosed by physical and neurological examination based on the medical history of the individual. A doctor makes the assessment according to:
* Tremor occurs when the muscles are standing or moving?
* The place of vibration in the body (it occurs on one side or on both sides of the body?)
* The appearance of the vibration (flicker frequency and amplitude).
The doctor will also check for other neurological findings such as imbalance, speech disorders or increased muscle stiffness. Blood or urine tests may rule out metabolic causes such as certain medications that may cause thyroid dysfunction and tremor. These tests can also help identify causes that contribute to drug interactions, such as chronic alcoholism or other conditions or diseases. Diagnostic imaging can help determine whether tremor is the result of damage to the brain.
Additional tests may be applied to determine functional limitations such as difficulty with handwriting or a fork, cup holder. Individuals may be asked to perform a series of tasks or exercises, such as touching a finger at the tip of a nose or drawing a spiral.
The doctor may request an electromyogram (EMG) to diagnose muscle or nerve problems. This test measures involuntary muscle activity and muscle response to nerve stimulation.
How Tremor Is Treated?
Although there is no treatment for most forms of tremor, treatment options are available to help manage symptoms. In some cases, symptoms may be too mild to require treatment.
Deciding on appropriate treatment depends on the correct diagnosis of the cause. Shivering due to underlying health problems can sometimes be completely eliminated by treatment. For example, tremor associated with thyroid hyperactivity is improved (even to normal) by treatment of thyroid dysfunction. In addition, shaking can reduce or eliminate flicker if the shake occurs due to medication.
If there is no underlying cause of tremor, the available treatment options may be:
Beta-blockers : Beta-blockers such as propranolol are normally used to treat high blood pressure, but are also helpful in the treatment of essential tremor. Propranolol can also be used for other types of action tremor in some individuals. Other beta-blockers that may be used are atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol and sotalol.
Antiepileptics : Some antiepileptic drugs such as Mysoline containing Primidone may be effective in basic (essential) tremor patients who do not respond to beta-blockers. Other prescribable drugs include gabapentin and topiramate. However, it is known that certain anti-seizure drugs may cause tremors.
Trankilizan drugs:Tranchilans such as Alprazolam and clonazepam, also known as benzodiazepines, may temporarily assist the tremor. However, their use is limited due to undesirable side effects including drowsiness, poor concentration and poor coordination. These side effects can affect people's ability to perform daily activities such as driving, going to school, or going to work. Also, when taken on a regular basis, tranquilizers can cause physical dependence and may cause various withdrawal symptoms when left suddenly.
Parkinson's disease drugs : Levodopa, carbidopa drugs such as Parkinson's disease is used in the treatment of tremor.
Botulinum toxin injectionsAlmost all types of tremor can be treated in this way. It is especially useful for head shaking that does not respond to medication. Botulinum toxin is widely used to control dystonic tremor. Although botulinum toxin injections can improve tremor for about three months at a time, it can cause muscle weakness. This treatment is effective and is usually well tolerated for head shaking and may cause weakness in fingers when used for hands. When treating the vibration of the sound, the sound may cause thickening and difficulty swallowing.
Focused Ultrasound
Magnetic resonance images accompanied by focused ultrasound is a new form of treatment for essential tremor in the thalamus region of the brain, creating a lesion in small areas thought to be responsible for tremors. Treatment has been approved for essential tremor patients who do not respond well to anticonvulsant drugs or beta-blockers.
Surgical Intervention
If patients do not respond to drug therapies or have severe tremors that affect their daily lives significantly, doctors may recommend deep brain stimulation (DBS) or very rarely surgical interventions such as thalamotomy. While DBS is generally well tolerated, the most common adverse side effect of surgery is dysarthria and balance problem.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS):The most commonly used form of surgical treatment of tremor. This method is preferred because it is effective, carries a low risk and treats a wider range of symptoms than the thalamotomy. It uses surgically placed electrodes to deliver electrical signals with a high frequency to the thalamus region, which coordinates and controls some involuntary movements of the brain. A small stimulating device (similar to a pacemaker) placed under the chest beneath the skin sends electrical stimuli to the brain and temporarily blocks tremor. DBS is currently used for the treatment of essential tremor, Parkinson's tremor and dystonia.
thalamotomyIt is a surgical procedure that involves the precise and permanent destruction of a tiny area in the thalamus. Today, when deep brain surgery is contraindicated, surgery is replaced by radiofrequency ablation to treat severe tremor. Radiofrequency ablation uses a radio wave to heat a nerve and produce an electric current that typically disrupts signaling capability for six or more months. It is usually done on only one side of the brain to improve flicker. Operations on both sides are not recommended, as it may cause problems with speech.
Lifestyle Changes
Physical, speech and occupational therapies: It can help control tremor and deal with daily challenges caused by tremor. A physiotherapist can help to improve muscle control, functioning and strength of patients through coordination, balance, and other exercises. Some therapists may recommend the use of items such as weights, splints, other adaptive equipment, special containers for food and dishes. Speech and language pathologists can evaluate and treat speech, language, communication and swallowing disorders. Occupational therapists can teach individuals new methods of performing daily life activities.
Eliminate or reduce flickering substances such as caffeine and other drugs:It can help greatly improve tremor. Although small amounts of alcohol may reduce tremors in some patients, the effects of alcohol may worsen tremors when taken too much.
How is the course of the disease?
Tremor is not considered a life threatening situation. Although many cases of tremor are mild, they may be too obstructive for some people. It may be difficult for individuals with tremors to perform normal daily activities such as working, bathing, dressing and eating. Shivering can also cause ğ social insufficiency Tit. People can limit their physical activity, travel and social responsibility to avoid shame or other consequences.
The symptoms of essential tremor often worsen with age. In addition, there is some evidence that other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease, are less likely to develop in people with essential tremor, especially those who first appear after age 65 of tremor. Unlike essential tremor, the symptoms of physiological and drug-induced tremor often do not worsen over time, and the underlying causes can often be cured or eliminated when treated.
What Researches Are Done?
The mission of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is to explore basic information about the brain and nervous system and to use this information to reduce the burden of neurological diseases. NINDS is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a leading supporter of biomedical research in the world. Researchers are working to better understand the brain functions that cause tremors, identify genetic factors that make individuals more susceptible to the disease, and develop new and better treatment options.
Brain Functions
It may be difficult to differentiate movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. These debilitating movement disorders have different prognoses and can give very different responses to existing treatments. NINDS researchers work to identify structural and functional changes in the brain using non-invasive neuroimaging techniques to develop sensitive and specific markers for each of these diseases, and then monitor how the disease progresses as it progresses.
Other researchers use functional magnetic resonance imaging technology to better understand normal and diseased brain circuit functions and related motor behavior. Scientists hope to design treatments that can restore normal brain circuit function in diseases such as Parkinson's disease and tremor.
Research has shown that essential tremor may have a strong genetic component that affects many generations of the family. NINDS researchers add new ones to previous genetic studies to identify susceptibility genes for familial early onset (prior to age 40) essential tremor, and focus on multi-generational, early-onset families to better identify the links. NINDS scientists also investigate the effect of genetic abnormalities on the development of essential tremor. Previous studies show that there is a link between essential tremor and possible genetic variants with chromosomes 6 and 11, and ongoing research is aimed at the effect of other genetic variations in families.
Drugs and Other Treatment Methods
Although drugs are effective on some individuals, about 50 percent of patients do not respond to the drug. In order to develop anti-flicker devices for assistive and rehabilitation purposes for essential tremor patients, researchers are looking for voluntary movements to explore where and how to minimize or suppress tremors.
Many people with essential tremor respond to alcohol (alcohol), but it is not clear why or how. NINDS investigators investigate the effect of ethanol on shake and whether other drugs without side effects will be effective on ethanol to determine the correct dosage and physiological effect in the brain.
Other NIH researchers hope to identify the source of essential tremor, to investigate the effects of existing tremor suppressants in the brain, and to develop more targeted, effective therapies.

Source: poxox blogs

How to correct migraine disorder?

It is usually a discomfort, a migraine that causes attacks that are very severe. There are some suggestions from someone who has experienced this damn thing people have been suffering from for years.
First of all, you need to make sure you are diagnosed with migraine. a doctor told me, "When the brain is normal, everything is normal." I do not know how accurate and inclusive information. There are experimental methods, drugs such as dideral is reducing the severity of the pain you are experiencing and your doctor can write if it sees fit. strong painkillers, a tiny bit again.
anyway, these are not my specialty. Based on my personal experience, let's talk about it in your life that you can change.
first item, sleep pattern
to sleep well, to get a good sleep the biggest weapon against migraine crisis. When stress increases the level of unhappiness, the first thing that is affected is the sleep pattern; I have to try everything to sleep: sports, calming herbal teas, more noiseless songs ... I don't sleep without reading books, for example, I feel missing. When you read about twenty pages, your rhythm of balance is balanced in a line, you get calm. clean sheets, pillow case etc. everything becomes a lot easier when you have a good quality sleep.
second item, eating habit
The second stop of the destruction, which usually starts with a violation of the first article, is anorexia. Of course you can also be influenced by psychological situations that are independent of sleep, but you should keep in mind: if you only have breakfast with cigarette-coffee, you have no chance against migraines if you take a snack. A full breakfast is a balanced and healthy nutrition program. digestive system and food that will not force -gluten containing everything is very tired-coffee, cigarettes, alcohol should be as far away as possible. one of my teachers asked the complex against the question of the students shouting "yahu you're engineer! It is your job to think and apply the shortest way to simplify all problems, with a few boxes to simplify solutions until you go," he said. Let us simplify: we are like a plant, are fed with sunlight. Do not forget to drink water, feed the roots and go out.
I know the sun is making a crappy impression but it feels good to get some to act. When you wear your sunglasses and take short walks, your appetite is opening up a little bit and the laziness brought by the stagnation is being cut.
third item, light
Get a good quality sunglasses, not dark glasses, prefer to wear more light glasses. white light, the biggest enemy after the fluorescent sun. Avoid, avoid. you can not escape, you can change your seat to prevent your eyes directly from the hat can be relieved with a number of obstacles such as your eyes. In the office, I met a maniac who lifted the entire department to escape the light and the glass. for the intense lights of electronic devices is necessary to take precautions. Find the special command for your computer, which allows you to reduce the f.lux lifesaver, your smartphone and your tablet to further reduce light settings. For example, for android, at least for Android. Choose the dim living areas, daylight led bulbs in your home. There is an unnecessary amount of light source and chandelier density in an average Turkish family home.
fourth item, sound
I'm not saying the ringtones out of your life, is it life? You know, some mornings you will experience high levels of migraine pain, stay away that day. Stay away during times of crisis, earbuds, multi-phone calls. bass and drum notes are predominant music genres, the pain of the days of your own forced and evening friends with the flattened, go to noisy places. go home and rest in a quiet, lightless environment.
fifth item, odor
you can choose organic, olive-based shower gels, soap and shampoos. You must not constantly expose yourself to an odor. Isn't it enough to be clean? instead of deodorant, you should prefer spray deodorants, roll-ons and insist on more unisex varieties. I have a roll-on or spray deodorant produced by the nivea's creamy scent. it is both very effective and more odorless and does not leave any trace on clothes.
Sixth item, cleaning
dust what makes you kneeling to the american army. In the frame of a layout you need to take the dust, sweep. If you have a pet, if you have an allergic body, you must be more careful. I've given you great information about vinegar. you can not guess how much you will relax when you clean your pet, the area where you live with a little vinegar.
seventh item, wind
You will protect yourself, it's as simple as that. you can be on the field due to your job, for example, buffs can be used to cut the wind like a band, the more cold climates in a simple hat instead of a hat to keep your head and your head warm can be preferred.
eight, everything that supports the immune system
I think it's all about this matter. The universal set of substances I'm telling each other is closely related to the immune system. the next day should be a motivation to wake up to the human. Be in love - not to a person, but to a creative concept, work or sport - buy or produce pets. Write, draw, work with music. it gives a great positive momentum to the soul.
My dear friends, I could write them in a snap.
I'm sorry for the slice from the didactic, I can't handle it for the second time because I've been grappling with migraine pain for ten days and my tolerance has fallen to the limit. But there's nothing to do, we have to live, right?

Get well soon.

What are the Benefits of Avocado?

Avocado fruit, whose homeland is Central America, grows in southern Turkey like Adana Antalya Alanya.
Avocado is a white, coarsely seeded fruit with a peel and green. Avocado accesses after being collected in full maturity. It is necessary to wait for maturation to understand its flavor. It contains vitamins E and C, as well as protein and healthy fats. Avachado, body and skin are very useful for our health.

In recent years, skin care products are common avocado extracts of ours. The reason is the vitamin E in its content. Vitamin E is also very useful for the skin. Prevents skin aging, naturally protects from sunlight, smoke and polluted air. Avocado is a very powerful moisturizer. Increases water viscosity in skin and gives moisture to skin.
Benefits of Avocadon: Contributions to our Health:
* Good cell protective and antioxidant.
* Strengthens the immune system.
* Protects against cancer.
* It is also useful for cardiovascular health.
* Contains unsaturated fatty acids in the blood to prevent the increase of cholesterol in the blood and vascular diseases is the best natural medicine.
* Effective against constipation.
* Cut leaves diarrhea.
* Inactivates toxic substances in the body and destroys harmful substances causing aging. Therefore, it plays an important role in preventing diseases by slowing down the aging process.
* It is used in skin care and cosmetics industry because of its characteristics.
* Helps renew the body tissues and skin.
* It contributes to the healing of wounds.

What is the Impact of GeoEngineering on World Climate?

Injecting aerosols into the stratosphere can help refreshing the planet, but scientists have not yet found exactly how such geological geophysics work.
Increasing evidence suggests that climate is changing and that human activities are the main reason for this situation. The world is warming and we are responsible. Now scientists, globallythey are working on alternative solutions to reduce the extraordinary cost of even the smallest increases. In addition to cutting our global carbon footprint to a great extent, they support the idea that we have to deliberately make major changes on the planet. 

These large-scale changes (changes that chemically capture the carbon in the air, causing the growth of carbon-eating plankton or creating a reflective mist reflecting sunlight in the upper atmosphere) are known as geo-engineering. Tomorrow, even if we stop spreading carbon dioxide, many scientists say it won't be enough. Our oceans are currently absorbing part of the planet's extreme heat and causing a slowdown in the temperature increase. The warm-up we saw today was the result of the decisions made decades ago. Given the importance of the issue, geo-engineering advocates now say that it is important to look at new technologies and develop new solutions. The issue is getting more and more common in different environments. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which has been an increasingly pan-panic climate change since 1990, is unlikely to be below temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius in October 2018. he said he saw that it was close to impossible. He proposed to develop an infrastructure to remove carbon from the atmosphere.
So scientists started to look for different ways to cool the planet. The researchers suggested lighting the clouds, making the sea spray more reflective, or throwing a giant mirror to reflect extra sunlight. The most promising and affordable method is stratospheric aerosol injection which involves spreading small particles into the upper atmosphere. These particles will remove sunlight from the Earth, effectively darken the sun and cool the planet in theory. Several studies using computer models have shown that this method will work in theory. Recent studies of this kind, published in the World Climate Change, have used a sophisticated model that simulates extreme precipitation and hurricanes, and found that reflecting sunlight with aerosols would cool the world equally with minimal additional effect.
Although a stratospheric aerosol injection experiment has not yet been carried out, scientists have observed small particles due to volcanic eruptions.They got an idea of ​​what would happen when they were thrown into the atmosphere. When Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines occurred in 1991 when roughly 20 million tonnes of sulfur dioxide rose 20 miles, cooling the global temperatures to 0.6 degrees Celsius for 15 months. Beyond the pinatubo explosion, there are several data shocks that reveal how sulfur in the stratosphere will affect the planet. Panatubo data was incredibly valuable for verifying models, but patlama a burst was not the same as a continuous sulfur dioxide emission, it could have had different effects in a different season. He exploded at the same time as El Nino, and some of the effects were hard to break. We don't even know how much material it put on the stratosphere. Corn says Douglas Macmartin, professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Cornell University.
Geo-engineering research can also direct funds from known carbon reduction strategies such as solar and wind energy. You can even give information. According to some claims, cooling the planet with aerosol will eliminate the incarnation of decarnonize. But many engineers agree that we need to reduce carbon in the atmosphere, even if it is something like large-scale stratospheric aerosol injection. If not, we will literally continue to pump more and more aerosols forever. Darkening the sun can help combat climate change. However , it does not alter the other adverse effects of any carbon dioxide, such as ocean acidification, which has killed coral, shellfish and plankton all over the world.
Finally, the experiments in this area will continue to move slowly but inevitably towards a possible development in the next one or two years. Meanwhile, the world continues to warm up.
Source: poxox blogs

What is Mania and Hypomania and How is it Treated?

Both mania and hypomania involve periods in which the individual feels excited or has an energetic mood. This may vary in how serious the mood changes are, and we can sort out these differences as follows:
• Mania is a serious form of behavior that can last for a week or more. One person is too happy to control and can feel very high in energy. These symptoms affect daily life and in severe cases this person may need to go to the hospital.
• Hypomania is a few days. People can feel very good and work at high efficiency. While family or friends notice mood or activity changes, these symptoms may not be a symptom of hypomania.
• Mania and hypomania are most commonly associated with bipolar disorder. They may also be seen as part of other mood disorders such as schizoaffective disorder.
Bipolar disorder is a mental health disorder in which a person experiences changes in mood, energy, activity level, and thought patterns. It is seen as a mania in people with bipolar I disorder and hypomania in people with bipolar II disorder.
What Are Mania Symptoms?
Mania symptoms may include uncontrollable excitement, high energy levels, a feeling of overconfidence, and a lack of social barriers, and beyond normal mood and energy changes. Mania symptoms are so intense that a person's relationships, work or well-being can affect. Having a mania does not always mean that a person feels happy. Mania can cause euphoria, but can also cause extreme irritability. Mania symptoms are as follows; 

• Uncontrollable excitement
• Feeling too happy or too exuberant
Feeling uneasy or very anxious
• High energy levels that one is forced to control
• High levels of activity such as over-running, folding or moving
• Difficulty in focus or focus
• Realistic and very high self-confidence, self-confidence
• Lack of social blocking
• Race thoughts
• Sleep less or never sleep
• Take risks or careless activities
• Suicidal or self-injurious thoughts
People may experience psychotic symptoms during a mania period. These psychotic symptoms include:
• See or hear hallucinations or things that aren't there
• Signs of
hypomania to believe that they are very powerful or famous
Hypomania is a lighter form of mania. Hypomania is seen in people with bipolar disorder. If a complete manic attack occurs, the diagnosis of bipolar 1 is usually more appropriate. The symptoms of hypomania can be listed as follows:
• Higher than normal, happier mood
• High irritability or rude behavior
• Feeling self confidence
• Higher activity or energy levels than normal without a clear cause
• A strong sense of physical and mental well-being
• More than normal to be more social and communicative
• To hear a stronger desire for sex than normal
• To feel the need for less than normal
Hypomania and mania share many symptoms. The distinctive factor is the severity of these symptoms. Both mania and hypomania involve changes in mood and behavior beyond normal and daily changes. Mani is so severe that a person cannot continue his normal activities. In more extreme cases, they may need emergency hospital care. A person with hypomania can continue as usual. Family and friends may notice that the individual behaves differently, even if he does not realize that he is a hypomania. However, they still need medical help to prevent the symptoms from worsening.
Although hypomania is not as severe as mania, it can be dangerous and may adversely affect a person's overall well-being. According to one study, people were more likely to have risky behaviors in hypomanic attacks. This includes spending a large amount of money, using excessive alcohol or drugs, using dangerous cars, or engaging in risky, sexual behavior. People who live but do not have hypomania may have delusions, hallucinations, or manic dizziness. If a person does not receive treatment that is necessary for hypomania, he or she may be at risk of developing mania.
Sleeping late or joining parties can be a trigger for mania and hypomania. The symptoms of both mania and hypomania involve feeling very happy, emotionally high, more energetic and creative. In some cases, a mania or hypomania attack may be confused with a depression. The experts refer to this as the mixed characteristics section. When this mixture occurs, the person may feel energetic, hopeless or empty, but also energetic.
Some life events or activities may cause a mania or hypomania event. These sections are called triggers. In a small-scale study, it was found that some of the triggers in the adolescents revealed a group of mania and hypomania.
• Being in love
• Using recreational drugs, especially stimulants
• Launching a new creative project
• Staying late or partying
• Going on vacation
• Listening to loud music According to
another study, symptoms such as stress, lack of sleep and the use of antidepressant medications have been found to trigger symptoms that can trigger mania.
When to see a doctor?
If a person discovers changes in mood that appear to be stronger than normal, a health professional should appear. Bipolar disorder may be difficult to diagnose, but it may help to discuss a comprehensive medical history, physical examination, mood and symptoms. If a friend or family member has symptoms of mania or hypomania, they should be referred to a doctor and talk to them about treatment.
Treatment and Prevention
There is no cure for mania or hypomania, but people can manage their symptoms with drug therapy and speech therapies. These treatments can help prevent attacks of mania and hypomania, as well as attacks of depression. A person has to take his medications, typically given by a physician who is constantly in order to prevent mania or periods of depression. Drugs that can help people manage bipolar disorder include:
• Spirit balancers such as lithium and antiseizide drugs
• Second generation or atypical antipsychotics that treat mania and hypomania
Antidepressants that may help to treat the depressive episode of bipolar disorder
It can be useful for a while.
Many people benefit from a combination of drug and speech therapy. Speech therapy, also known as psychotherapy, can provide support, guidance and training for people with bipolar disorder. People who are treated with mania or hypomania should not stop taking these drugs without talking to their doctor. Stopping sudden treatment may lead to more severe symptoms if mania comes back. A person may also experience dangerous withdrawal symptoms.
While lifestyle changes cannot treat mania and hypomania alone, people can try to manage their symptoms and possibly avoid triggers:
• Make a healthy diet and avoid skipping meals.
• Apply good sleep hygiene. Go to bed and wake up at the same time every day if possible. Avoid being late and make a consistent sleep schedule every day.
• Keep a mood change log or use a mood table. They can help a person pay attention to the appearance of mania or hypomania, so that they can work with their therapists to treat them.
• Participate in appointments and take medication as prescribed by the doctor.
• Seek immediate help for self-harm or suicidal thoughts.
A person cannot prevent bipolar disorder, but with appropriate medical care he can take steps to prevent or manage his symptoms. Mania and hypomania are symptoms of mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder. People with bipolar 1 disorder may be mania, whereas people with bipolar 2 disorder are more likely to experience hypomania. Hypomania is a light mania version. Although both conditions have similar symptoms, they are more severe and disturbing than hypomania during mania attack. Individuals with complaints may administer mania or hypomania sections under the guidance of a doctor or other health professional.
Source: poxox blogs

Where do Bees and Other Insects Go in Winter?

Have you ever wondered where the bees and insects went in the winter? Enchantingly, many species have adapted to coping with cold in unique ways and strategies that reflect their life cycle. However, while most insects emerge at a similar time in the year, there is much evidence that this timing is affected by climate change. This means that it can detect species earlier than earlier years.
Where do Bees Go In Winter?
The UK hosts more than 250 bee species, including 24 different bumblebee species. But winter does not behave in the same way. Some species of solitary bees spend the winter as adults, protecting themselves from the cold in a process called wintering. They then emerge in the spring to make the most of early flowering. Other species, such as Mason bees, spend the winter as a pupa and have an annual life cycle that ends after they leave their eggs in autumn.
Social bees, such as bumblebees and honey bees, have life and winter habits around their hives and queens. In the early summer, they live in a nest of queen bees and female worker bees. As the summer progresses, the queen leaves a new generation of queen bees and eggs that produce male bees. Kolonim at the end leaves nests and pairs, young queens pour over nectar and take pollen to collect fat in their bodies. In the end, the new queens lay underground in the winter alone, and vital fat stores help survive the winter.
The rest of the nest falls along with leaves that died in autumn, including the old queen, male bees and female worker bees. When spring comes, warmThe temperatures awaken queens from the hibernation and want to nectar before finding a suitable nest for the year. Before they went to hibernation, they mated, and in the spring they would produce female worker bees. In this way, life cycles will be completed. Spring temperatures affect the bee awakening in the winter sleep, making them a good species for observing the nature calendar. And all red-tailed wasp workers will die before winter.
Red-tailed wasp
Appearance: Red-tailed wasp has a black body and a red tail. Men look different from women because their faces are yellow and the thorax is yellow, and they are larger than female workers.
What to save: In spring you first see a red-tailed bumblebee queen.
When to register: Generally from March onwards, however, depending on the weather, it should therefore be paid attention to earlier in hot waters.
Where Do Other Insects Go In Winter?
Common wasp: As the red-tailed wasp, only the queen wasps can survive the winter. As with bumblebees, the new generation of wasps is hibernating during the winter months before the spring wakes up when the temperature rises. The rest of the colony dies in the fall.
Appearance : Yellow and black lines and a black mark on their faces are anchors. It should not be confused with the German wasp, which has three black spots on the face.
What to register: The first time you will see an active queen in spring.
When to register : Usually since March, but most weather conditions. Keep your eyes open and let the authorities know if you notice before.
Ladybug:  Adult female birds spend the winter asleep and often in groups . In winter sheltered places such as tree bark. In the spring they wake up to find food and a wife. Females are poured into larvae in the summer, they leave their eggs and then type the eggs emerge as adults in late
Appearance : The red ladybird has seven points to three points near the middle of each leaf and head.
What to record: The first time you see an active ladybug in the spring.
When to register: Usually seen in February but depends on the weather. Active ladybug must be observed and be sure to record any early sight.

The Brimstone butterfly curved butterfly is one of only a few butterfly species prone to hibernation as adults. Other butterflies in the winter as pupa (orange tip butterfly) or larvae (spotted wood butterfly). Some, like the red admiral, even migrate.
Folded butterflies are active early in the year because they are already adults when they wake up in the spring. Every year there is only one new generation.
Appearance : These butterflies are yellow in color with an orange dot on each wing. They have a wingspan of about 6 centimeters.
The following is the date you see an active rimmed butterfly for the first time in the spring.
When to register: They appear before the end of May in early spring. After May, you can save an adult from a new generation rather than an adult who is awakening from hibernation.
Source: poxox blogs

What does the world of science say in our discussion about our level of intelligence?

It was thought that the level of intelligence increased with the development of technology, health standards and improvement of nutrition opportunities. But the research carried out by the Ragnar Frisch Economic Research Center in Norway has reversed the situation. Bernt Bratsberg and Ole Rogeberg, who took part in the research team, mentioned this issue in the National Academy of Sciences Proceedings and stated that people's IQ test scores have been on the decline with the slow acceleration in the last few decades.
Data of 39 years were examined
Norwegian scientists, the intellectual ability of people began to decline in the disclosure of the world's agenda is discussed as a study material for this research, the 1970- 2009 IQ-test results of the Norwegian conscripts used in the military announced. The total number of test results was 730 thousand.

The increase in IQ observed during the first half of the twentieth century was known as the Flynn effect. Many dissertations were proposed to explain this phenomenon. Theoretically, the factors affecting the esi increase in intelligence levels i of people have been shown to improve nutrition, health and education.
When we got electronic devices, our intelligence score dropped
According to calculations, the level of intelligence decreases by 7 points per average generation. It is stated that the decline in IQ may be related to the changes in the lifestyle of the people, in part because of the environmental factors. It is also among the results of this research that it may cause such a decline rather than reading books.
According to research, fish consumption plays a key role in increasing and decreasing the level of IQ
It is explained that children who eat between 7 and 9 years old at least once a week have an average of 5 points higher than those who have less fish consumption. It is undeniable that various factors such as education status, occupation and marital status of the families of the children participated in the research are considered to be the results, but that these factors are not as effective as fish. We need to take fish eating advice more seriously. Maybe it's the fish lobby.
University of Vienna disagrees with Norwegian scientists

The results of this pessimistic research by Norwegian scientists are not attended by psychologists at the University of Vienna. According to them, there is no decrease in the level of intelligence, but the increase continues. According to recent research by psychologists, people's IQ level increases by three points per decade. Martin Voracek and Jakob Pietschning, who explained the results of a study in Perspectives on Psycological Science, compared the intelligence test results with participation of more than 4 million people in 31 countries over a hundred-year period, and the attitudes of the test participants revealed that the results improved over time. According to this, the children born 50 years ago are not able to solve the same problems as the children who are born today. Here are the main factors; health, nutrition and technology. It is emphasized that the link between this triangle and environmental factors should not be overlooked.
The role of environmental factors
Pietschning at the University of Vienna draws attention to the role of environmental impacts. Especially the development of nutrition and health services supports the increase. However, it is not only a warning for this situation, but also for the obesity threat.
Geographical Difference
IQ level is changing from geography to geography.
Flynn effect
Flynn's effect is that the IQ scores, which were initially found by James Flynn, increased over time and increased in the general population with a certain level of stability. The mean IQ scores of each generation increase steadily. Although IQ scores are not exact figures, this increase is observed when compared to the general population. Thus, the average IQ score is 100 and it always shows the same number of correct answers according to the rest of the population.

Amalgam fillers emit mercury as they pass through powerful MR devices

Professor at Akdeniz University Selmi Yilmaz and his team in her research amalgam fillers 7-Dimensional MR devices exposed to mercury, emitted by mercury for the living organisms were shown. Normal MRI magnetic resonance machines work between 1.5 T and 3 T, but the new 7-generation magnetic that the new devices produce provides a high resolution and a very strong magnetic field.
The researchers measured the effects of 60 amalgam tooth fillers. 50% mercury is present in these fillings. she prepared a special solution to simulate human saliva and measured the amount of mercury that would leak through the filler in two MRIs of 1.5 T and 7 T by placing these teeth in it.

In our study, we found very high mercury values ​​after ultra-high-field MRI, am says DrSelmi Yilmaz, a dentist from Akdeniz University. H This is probably due to the creation of micro-circuit-like formations that lead to a phase change in amalgam material or to electrochemical corrosion caused by a magnetic field. Et Specifically, around 20 teeth passing through the 7T sockets detected 0.67 ppm of mercury content in the artificial saliva. 1,5 T is equivalent to 4 times the amount of mercury in the solution that is passed through 20 teeth. In the previous study, it was stated that some people might have problems with their fillers due to their very strong suction devices. Of course, amalgam fillers with high-power imaging devices for those who need to do more research. Dr. Selmi Yilmaz determined for the amount of mercury, "7Tesla MRI is very safe for those who enter the imaging can not say." she said.
To determine how much of the mercury released is absorbed by body tissues, research needs to be done. Yet this powerful EMF are not very common in the world and none in Turkey. But these devices, especially in the brain imaging of Alzheimer's patients is much more sensitive and good results. Although the European Union has forbidden amalgam fillings due to the damages to the environment, amalgam fillings are still being used in our country. Even though amalgam fillings are being used less and less, amalgam-filled people need to be more cautious. The study was published in Radiology. article published from Turkey took place in many national news channel.

The rebellion with a great role in the independence of Ireland: The Easter Revolt of 1916

Starting in 1916 with the Dublin Post Office and the occupation of a few key points, the Easter Rebellion played a key role in Ireland's struggle for independence, even though it was a failed rebellion.
The Easter Rebellion is a rebellion that has failed as a military rule against the British administration. It was organized on the Easter Monday of April 1916. The rebellion is famous for the fact that the militant republicans wanted to take control of Ireland and to leave the United Kingdom.

Revolutionary initiative between the dates of April 24-30, 1916, the irish volunteers member teacher and lawyer padraig pearse and irish citizen army member james connolly seized the key points of dublin and the independent republic of ireland was established against the united kingdom started. Hundreds of people lost their lives as a result of the intervention of the British government. 3000 people were arrested and 15 people (those who planned the revolution) were executed. only michael collins survived and laid the foundations of ira. this event is of great importance in ireland independence.
- padraig pearse  - thomas clarke  - thomas macdonagh  - joseph mary plunkett  - edward daly  - william pearse  - michael o'hanrahan  - john macbride  - eamonn ceannt  - michael mallin  - cornelius colbert  - sean heuston  - sean macdermott  - james connolly  - thomas kent  - sir roger casement
easter rebellion began on April 14, 1916 with the reading of the following statement.
"to the people of ireland: irishmen and irishwomen, in the name of god and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood, ireland, through us, summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom." 
Germany's sending of twenty thousand rifles, ten mitralists and five million rounds of arms assistance to the Irish sea and the British army and fleet to engage in a large German offensive has failed to take place.
we cannot say that the easter uprising still failed completely
The independence of the celtic nationalist intelligentsia led to the nationalism of the Irish people, and the war of liberation, which lasted between 1919 and 1922, coincided with our liberation war. despite his good intentions, british diplomacy of big hero cuchulainn'in born in the holy village of ulster lost to the great britain, also on top of the king vows of loyalty to the king michael collins and his gang and eamon de valera around the dissociation between the short duration of a domestic after the war, things were tied to sweet; eamon de valera was chosen as taoiseach from the fianna fail party.

Major Military Operations of History: Barbarossa Operation

Get your tea in your cup: June 22, 1941 - December 1941, the German Armed Forces occupation of the Soviet Union only II. It is considered to be the biggest operation seen in all history, not World War II. Detailed summary of this is in our content.
The operation of the barbarossa is the name given by the German German wing to the invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on 22 June 1941. it is also the largest military operation in history that opens the eastern front of the Second World War. Over 4.5 million troops connected to the Axis states attempt to invade the Soviet Union over a 2,900 km frontline. In addition to these units, 600,000 motor vehicles and 625 thousand horses were added to the operation. The war on the barbarossa campaign was started on December 18, 1940, while the war was still on its nose. The German armies began almost uninterruptedly in the clashes, which started with the attack of the German armies on 22 June 1941 to the Soviet Union and continued until December 5, 1941. the preparations carried out in secrecy and the operation itself took almost a year. the red army, in front of the wehrmacht's powerful blows to the front of the mosque and leningrad.

the German progress on December 5, 1941 for the first time in front of Moscow is stopped. from then on, during the first three months of 1942, the situation on the front line: one after another, continued as the unrelenting clashes between the successive red army counter-attacks and the German army units trying to challenge them. As a result, the Hitler cannot reach the victory he hopes for, and the Red Army manages to stop the Wehrmacht's forward movement, albeit hard. German forces win tactically as well as brilliant victories. it succeeds in invading the vast territories of the Soviet Union in some of the most economically important regions, including Ukraine. However, the Soviet forces, which were the operative targets of the operation, could not be destroyed in the western part of the country and the removal of Moscow could not be realized. The forces linked to the German and its allies did not once again launch a widespread offensive in the front line until the middle of the following year. From the spring of 1942 onwards, the German progress will resume and provide deep and broad progress in the territory of the USSR. The failure of the barbarossa campaign led the hitler to the subsequent failed operations in the soviet territory, such as the siege of leningrad, the nordlicht operation, the battle of stalingrad and other operations in the soviet territory. the barbarossa operation was the largest military operation in military history in terms of the manpower involved and the results. failure, iii. Reich has been a landmark in history. most importantly, it opened the eastern front of the operation. on this front, more and more forces were waged at the beginning and in the process than all the world's historical battlefields. the barbarossa movement and the deadly viciousness of some of the biggest battles in the regions and cities under its influence, with its high losses and very difficult conditions for both sides, all in the 20th century and ii. it influenced the flow of history in the world war. Before the operation ...
german spread
after the German and Soviet forces invaded Poland in September 1939, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway in April 1940. In May of the same year, France attacked the Netherlands. paris fell on June 14 and france demanded a truce on 16 June. In February 1941, General Erwin Rommel and the African Corps (Africa Corps) began operations in North Africa.
soviet spread
When the German armies entered Paris, the Soviet government gave a nine-hour ultimatum to Lithuania, and the next day, on June 15, 1940, the Red Army invaded Lithuania. Estonian and Latvian occupied in a few days. In these three countries, elections were held on July 18 in the shadow of the Red Army, and the new government immediately decided to join the Soviet Union. lithuania joined the soviet union on August 3, in latvian on 5 august and estonia on 6 august. these three baltic countries joined the soviet union, the soviet union came to the common border with germany after poland.
He gave an ultimatum to Stalin, who had demanded the evacuation of Stalin from Romania, Besarabia, and Northern Bukovina. a day was granted. in fact, beserabia was adopted in the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union in the German non-aggression pact, but there was no substance for bukovina. Germany, unable to bring oil by sea due to the British blockade, had to worry seriously about its close proximity to the Romanian oilfield, due to its dependence on oil imported from Romania. besabya and north bukovina were occupied by soviet troops on June 28, 1941.
As for the German-Soviet relations of 1939sak1940 ...
molotov-ribbentrop pact (german-soviet aggression pact)
Germany and the Soviet Union were signed shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939. the underlying hidden protocols, although it is apparently a non-aggression agreement, iii. the border between the reich and the soviet union involved sharing states. The pact was a surprise for the whole world because of mutual hostility and ideological contention between the two countries. As a result of the pact, relatively tight diplomatic relations and significant economic relations between Germany and the Soviet Union were formed. a trade agreement was signed between the two countries in 1940. The Soviet Union has relieved the economy, in a way, by this trade treaty. raw materials, mainly oil, were sold to Germany in return for military and industrial materials. this eased the negative effects of the British blockade on the German economy.
romania crisis
Another effect of the collapse of france emerged in the north of the balkans. hungary and bulgaria began to demand land from romania in the summer of 1940. especially in hungary, i. after the war, he tried to get back to his lost transylvania. a conflict in this region could lead to a very serious crisis. the subject is again based on romanian oil. followers of the developments, August 28, when the situation became a critical situation, first of all five panzer and three mechanized tombs, the Roman oil region on September 1 ordered to be ready for occupation. at the same time, his foreign minister joachim von ribbentrop and the foreign minister of italy sent galeazzo ciano to viana. The two foreign ministers adopted the mediation of the parties and the arrangement of the Hitler. according to this, the rumen left half of transylvania to hungary and south dobrudia to bulgaria. Italy and Germany gave a guarantee for the rest of Romania. This guarantee given to romania has undermined the stalin, fueling a process that makes relations between the two countries increasingly tense.
greece crisis
on October 28, 1940, the Italian forces crossed the border of greece-albania. Although they were defeated in a week, this situation endangered the German situation in the Balkans. Then the British forces took Limnos and Girit, and then the soldiers to Greece. the airports that came with this British military presence threatened the oil field in Romania.
a government coup in yugoslavia on the night of 26 March 1941 was the start of the German invasion in balkans. The preparations were carried out on 25 March with the order no. 25, and the German forces attacked the yugoslav border on the morning of 6 April 1941. In late April, all balkans were under German occupation. The four British divisions from northern Africa were evacuated from the sea.
berlin talks
the Soviet Union's occupation of the Baltic countries and Romania, as well as Germany's guarantee to Romania, continued to tighten relations in September 1940. both sides accused the other party of violating the third article of the German non-aggression pact, which required consultation. moreover the german foreign minister ribbentrop, 16 September in northern Norway to send the reinforcing forces to go through the finland to disturb the stalin'ı disturbed, these troops suspected that they will stay in finland. and the tripartite pact, signed on 27 September 1940, also created doubts.
however, in the initiative of Germany, negotiations were started on the membership of the soviet union in the mihsel pact.
ribbentrop, in order to eliminate all these tensions, wrote to stalin on 13 October, invited the soviet foreign commissioner vyacheslav molotov to berlin. Hitler was to meet with Molotov. in this meeting, the führer would be able to personally tell his conversations about the future form of relations between the two countries. The subject had also been roughly pointed out, "the division of the world between the four great totalitarian states."
this provocative offer was accepted by stalin and molotov came to berlin on 12 november 1940. the first side of the German side of the negotiations, England is defeated, in this case it is time to define the interests of the four states said. the vast territory of the British Empire had to be shared.
Hitler did not participate in the interviews before the first day. Molotov usually listened to the German side. afternoon hitler also participated in the talks. The attitude of molotov was very different from the German side, especially the hitler. the minutes of all the interviews except for one who wrote dr. Schmidt later recalled, "It was a succession to Hitler. One by one, no foreign visitor had ever spoken to him." that day and the following day molotov hitler asked for clear results about some regions. Firstly, it was Germany's request to withdraw its troops from Finland. hitler renewed that finland is not under occupation. then he asked the attitude of the soviet administration on finland, and Molotov replied "a compromise across besarabia". this compromise meant direct annexation to the right. "Turning to Stalin finland on the Baltic Sea seemed to be put on the head. molotov also bulgaria, asked what the results are in Romania and Turkey. First he wanted the withdrawal of the guarantee given to Romania by Italy and Germany. stalin could have additional land demands from romania, and this would give rise to a soviet border closer to the romanian oil zone.
Hitler took a break at this point. at dinner, the British bombers flew into the shelter when they began to bomb Berlin. In the shelter the ribbentrop took the pact's covenant text, which would turn into a quadruple pact with the participation of the soviet union. the draft of the treaty to be disclosed was a customary non-aggression pact text. they were secret protocols. especially the protocol describing the soil aspirations of each country was important. according to this, the territorial ambitions of the soviet union began from the middle of the national territory, until the south were hanging in the indian ocean. but the interests of the soviet administration were not the ocean of indian. west, baltic sea, balkanlar'a, and straits stretched to the Mediterranean. Molotov, in his words, even asked about Germany's stance regarding the neutrality of Switzerland, he was so interested in Europe.
Two weeks after his departure from Berlin, on 26 November, Stalin received a letter from the German embassy in Moscow, stating that he would join the quartet pact when certain conditions were met. The conditions of stalin were:
"The German troops and the Soviet Union will immediately withdraw from Finland. With the signing of a mutual aid agreement between the Soviet Union and Bulgaria and a long-term lease agreement, land and sea bases will be established by the Soviet Union within the framework of Istanbul and Çanakkale straits. safety in the straits will be provided in the next few months.
In the south of Batum and Baku, the region in general will be recognized as the center of the Soviet Union.
Japan will abandon coal and oil concessions in northern Sahinin.
also, in case of any difficulty regarding Turkey's straits four states are required to take military measures against this country. "
Germany did not respond to it.
both this document and the talks with molotov in berlin have shown that hitin is stalin's interest in europe. The Soviet Union seems to have sought to surround Europe from the north and south through the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. whereas Hitler wanted to remove the Soviet Union from Europe. on the other hand, the stalin also wants the middle east oil fields to be left to their sphere of influence. in the wake of these two developments, Hitler told the staff that the Soviet Union should be brought as early as possible.
Although commercial treaties set off a few open issues and boundaries in January 1941, controversy also began in central Europe.
german planning
In 1925, the Hitler claimed in his fight that the lebensraum needed by the German people should be sought in the land of the east, in which he would occupy part of the Soviet territory. The Nazi race ideology sees the Soviet Union as untermenschen slav peoples ruled by the Jewish Bolshevik elites. Hitler writes in my fight that "the fate of the German people was in eastern lands just as it was six hundred years ago, the end of the Jewish sovereignty in Russia would be the end of Russia as a state." further, he states that "a war against the ideals of panslav is inevitable." the victory that will be won, will determine the permanent masters of the world. on the other hand, he stated that if the Russians supported us, they would walk a part of the road with them. for this reason the official nazi policy envisages killing, driving and enslaving the Russians and other slavic peoples, and resettling those unmanned lands by German immigrants.

stalin's notorious reputation has contributed to the claims of the Nazis as well as their beliefs and achievements. During the great cleaning of the late 1930s, many talented and experienced officers, as well as thousands of civilians, were killed or imprisoned. After all, the Red Army fell into a serious nuisance about the referral and administration. Nazis often emphasized the atrocity of the Soviet regime in their aggressive propaganda targeting the Slavs. German propaganda claimed that the Red Army was preparing to attack them. therefore, they argued that their offensive against Russia was a preventive war.

Germany in the summer of 1940 in the raw material crisis and the possibility of a conflict in the Soviet Union and the Balkans with the increase in the number of hitler, began to look at the invasion of the Soviet Union as the only solution. In June, there was no concrete plan for attacking the Soviet Union, but a general of Hitler said that the victories in Western Europe had given him the freedom of movement to finally settle with Bolshevism. According to Hitler, this was his real and most important mission. nevertheless, the generals thought that invading western Russia would bring more burdens instead of comforting the German economy.

There were additional gains from the führer. When the Soviet Union was defeated, the lack of labor in the German industry would be eliminated because of the demobilization of most of the army. Ukraine would also provide stable agricultural resources. The use of soviet peoples as slave labor resources will significantly improve the geostrategic position of Germany. With the defeat of the soviet union, the allied states, especially the united kingdom, will have fallen from power. The German economy had to take control of Baku oilfield with the need for more oil. albert speer, the German Minister of Armed Forces and War Production, said during the interrogation of the post war that the urgent need for oil was the primary reason.
In the fall of 1940, high-ranking German officers prepared a memorandum on the dangers of the invasion of the Soviet Union. Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states suggested more burden for the German economy. another German officer states that the soviet bureaucracy makes the country powerless, that the occupation will not be a gain for Germany, and should not be disturbed by a weak Bolshevism.

Hitler rejected economic justifications and hermann Goren says, "Everybody always puts forward their economic concerns against the threat of war with Russia." He said. from then on he would close his ears to these kinds of speeches and had made up his mind. such views have now been forwarded to the general georg thomas. the general was preparing a report on the economic difficulties that the soviet union would invade. the main idea was that the operation would have negative effects on the economy unless the Soviet Union was completely occupied.

on the other hand, some of the German generals were against the military for military reasons. okh (oberkommando das heeres) commander-in-chief marshal walther von brauchitsch, the chief of the chief of staff, including the general franz halder and marshal gerd von rundstedt'in, as first of all the hitler'in, the Soviet Union is determined to attack Germany They did not believe it. even so, the defense was less risky than attacking Russia. marshal von rundstedt asked the hitler when he was attacking russia, "did you discuss what you took?"

Hitler's self-confidence increased due to his successes in Western Europe and his inability to do so in the winter war on the Red Army. he believed that victory would be won in a few months in the east. It was believed that the surrender of the soviet union would be a quick release. therefore, there was no need to prepare according to winter conditions. the troops had no winter clothes and when the attack started, they were not prepared for a long-term expedition. such that only 20% of the winter force was prepared for the army. this force, the end of the war to be left in the occupied territory, the force was not to participate in the operation. The topic of winter clothing, however, began to be interested in late August. however, according to general heinz guderian, this lack of preparedness for winter clothing was only in one part of the land forces, there was no problem for luftwaffe and waffen-ss.

Göring put forward a series of proposals for the economic order to be followed immediately after the invasion of the Soviet Union in early March 1941, by its green file name. large numbers of indigenous peoples in the invaded lands would be starved, thus providing plenty of food for Germany. then the immigrants who came to this land which was almost unmanned would settle as an elite class. In the Nüremberg hearings, sir hertley shawcross explained that several new regions were planned from the pre-established administrative regions in eastern Russia. The Nazi policy aimed at eliminating the Soviet Union politically in order to create the future generations of the future, depending on the way of living. "We'll just kick the door, that rotten structure will collapse by itself." In the short term, a new organization that will organize the exploitation of all the resources (including human resources) that could benefit Germany in the occupied soviet territory was created under the name of Reich Ministry by Alfred Reichscholz.
shortly before the invasion began, okh issued an order that extended directly to the divisions of the division. According to this order known as a commissioner, it was reported that the personnel who committed serious maltreatment against civilians and prisoners of war would not be given to a military court and that a senior commander would be discharged. even if he was to be given a penalty, this penalty could only be a disciplinary action. especially the political commissars were to be executed where they were seized.
On December 5, 1940, Hitler approved the operational plans for the invasion of the Soviet Union, and the date of the operation was set in May 1941. Two weeks later, on December 18, Hitler issued his command to German high command, No. 21, which was to be called the Barbarossa operation. The first sentence of the order, "the German armed forces, the Soviet Union should be ready for an action to be brought quickly to the string." It shaped. The closed name given to the operation was inspired by the name of the third crusade commander in the 12th century and the frederick barbarossa, the holy roman emperor. Hitler's order No. 21 states that "preparations will be completed by 15 May 1941". this statement is often interpreted as predicting that the operation will begin in mid-May. in fact, 15 may, "the completion date of preparations". The purpose of the operation in the order, "the destruction of the large part of the Russian army in western Russia, and yet not put into war, war-ready forces, to prevent the withdrawal of large territory of Russia" is defined as.

the line that will be reached by the operation is shown as the line extending from the idyll river to arhangelsk. the text includes highly detailed planning of the main offensive lines. the main skeleton of the plan of operation was quite straight forward, mechanized-motorized elements of the central armies' group would cut the front line and proceed in the direction of smolensk, from this point to the south and to the north by dividing it into two branches, thus destroying the red army's forces without being allowed to retreat. hitler and staff, napoleon bonaparte'ın 1812 examining the misfortune of the expedition. the commander in chief of the Russian army, general mihail ivanovic kutuzov, without leaving any supply material that could benefit the french behind the back of the army by pulling back his forces did not lose much of its forces. moscow entered the french army, winter, while suppressing properties had faced intolerance. Napoleon had to retreat in order not to lose his army in this way. in order to avoid the same situation, the Hitler felt that the Red Army should not give the opportunity to withdraw.

the barbarossa operation was a combination of a north-up offensive in the direction of leningrad, the control of the oil fields behind the ukraine, which were important for the conquest of the symbolic significance of the Moscow and its economic strategy. Hitler and his generals could not agree on which issues mattered first. however, Germany should concentrate on the issue of fuel and a compromise decision on priorities. Hitler discussed with his generals many times during the planning of the barbarossa operation in 1940-1941, and repeated his order, "first in Leningrad, second in the Donets region, and third in Moscow." Hitler's attitude towards Moscow changed over time or seemed to be so. At the meeting on 5 December 1941, which approved the operational plans, Moscow maintained that it was not important and that the main thing was the destruction of the life force of the Soviet Union. however, on the 18th of December 1941, when the order no. 21 was issued, the taking of the city would be "a definite economic and political victory". Hitler was now in a hurry about the invasion of the East that he had wanted for a long time. When the Soviet Union was defeated, he believed Britain would seek peace. General Franz Halder noted in his diary that Britain would lose its hope of victory by defeating the Soviet Union.
As in the case of the German expedition to France, there was a divergence between the German generals in the eastern campaign on the strategy. the generals of the traditional strategy proposed to destroy the soviet main forces immediately after the border and to dispose of them, but then proceed to the inside of Russia. during these sieges and battles, they considered that panzer groups and infantry corps were required to participate in operations in coordination. for them, moving forward into Russia without destroying most of the red army in this way would bring risks to it. The opinion of general heinz guderian, general hermann hoth and commander of many armored units, was also supported by the idea that panzer groups should move to the depths as much as possible in the direction of Moscow, and that the operations of the siege of the red army units should be left behind by the infantry corpses. The general guderian wanted the panzer groups to advance at least up to the Dnieper line. Hitler adopted the idea of ​​traditional strategy. nevertheless, the red army forces were targeted to be destroyed in the west of the Dnieper. For this purpose, the infantry corpses were shorter-elongated and the panzer groups would perform deeper siege operations. in this way the two strategies became integrated in a way.

The wehrmacht forces allocated for the eastern expedition were organized as a group of three armies.

The northern armies under the command of marshal wilhelm ritter von leeb will attack in the general direction of leningrad, covering the northern flank of the operation from eastern prussia. a secondary offensive arm will also draw a slight arc and move to the east of Minsk. Hitler's command No. 21 stipulated the capture of leningrad. the assault of the northern armies after this stage would be in the general direction of Moscow.
the group of central armies under the command of the marshal fedor von bock will attack in the general direction of poland, brest-litovsk in the soviet section and then north of the pripyat marsh.
The southern group of armies under the command of the marshal gerd von rundstedt will move from the southern part of Poland to a line running in the general direction of the kiev, between the dniester and the Dnieper rivers. Romanian troops participating in the operation will attack from Besarabya in the direction of Odessa.
In addition to the wehrmacht troops, 18 fin divisions under the command of marshal gustav mannerheim, 12 rumen divisions under the command of marshal ion antonescu, 3 hungarian brigades, 2 slovakian divisions, then 3 italian divisions, one spanish division and one voluntary association will join the operation.

the tasks given to the northern armies group, the baltic states will walk to leningrad, the lake of ladoga and the petsamo nickel mines will be seized, the murmansk railway line will be cut and the non-defensive soviet ports in the north sea will be controlled. The operative targets of the southern armies' group are the destruction of the red army forces in the west of the Dnieper River, the advancement of Kiev through Ukraine, and the seizure of the Donets basin in which 60% of the Soviet industrial production is collected.
the group of central armies was to split the soviet fortified positions in brest-litovsk, to attack in the general direction of roslavl - elnya - smolensk, to prevent the reorganization of the red army.
german preparations
the date of commencement of the action will be decided on May 15, the preparations will be completed. yet hitler, yugoslavia, the German opposition to the military coup and the occupation of albania against the invasion of albani against the decision to intervene in the progress of the armies of the balkan was launched and the barbarossa operation was postponed. Almost all historians and many soldiers are of the opinion that this postponement decision leads to the failure of the barbarossa operation. but that was just one of the reasons. the other was the long duration of spring in Russia in 1941. The rainfall continued in June, making it impossible for the heavy vehicles to cross the main roads in the west of the country. General Halder also states that climatic conditions are not suitable before 22 June.

the Germans, before the end of the war on the front of the Balkans, began to gather their troops as masses at the Soviet border. In the first three weeks of February 1941, a force of 680 thousand people was piled up at the Romanian-Soviet Union. For the offensive to the Soviet Union, 3.5 million German soldiers were gathered at the military soviet border of 1 million Allies. Many air reconnaissance missions have been launched on the Soviet lands, and a tremendous amount of material has collapsed across the border. these developments have taken the Soviet administration off guard. this was largely because Stalin thought that Germany would not attack Russia in the next two years after the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. on the other hand, he believed that Germany would not open a second front without concluding his struggle with Britain. not only stalin, but almost all the Soviet generals were sure about it, even the German generals. The general guderian writes in his memoirs that he was disappointed when he learned that there would be a front in the east.

spy richard sorge, the exact date of the German offensive stalin'e conveyed. The Swedish cryptoanaists, led by arne beurling, also reached the assault history. but the sorcerer and other intelligence elements reported different offensive dates. On the other hand, the information you obtained from the British intelligence on the ultra reported the start date of the invasion of the Soviet Union a few months before 22 June 1941. The two German operations for the British invasion were used as misleading information about the siege on the Soviet border. sea ​​movement and hailisch operation. False preparations were made in Norway and the Channel Channel. all of this was supported by the collection of ships, the reconnaissance flights of the air elements. Some details of these fake infestation plans were deliberately leaked.

Hitler and his generals agreed with the three separate army groups on the strategy of invading certain cities and regions of the Soviet Union. the main German coup was to be carried out on the historical invasion line, on the mosque approach of napoleon. the group of northern armies will advance to the northern part of Russia over the baltic states and reduce leningrad. the group of central armies will advance to smolensk and march from the central part of western russia to moscow. the group of southern armies will attack Ukraine, which is densely populated and has a high agricultural potential, will take the kiev and continue towards the east before proceeding towards the east, towards the steppes of southern Russia and the Caucasus, which is rich in oil deposits.
hitler, okw (oberkommando der wehrmacht / german armed forces command) and various commands do not agree on the main objectives. During the preparations of the barbarossa operation, okw's overall advocated the direct imposition of Moscow. but the hitler insisted on the idea of ​​seizing the rich resources of the ukraine and the baltic countries before gathering forces around the soviet capital. the first delay occurred in the postponement of the start date of the operation from mid-May to June 1941. this delay was necessary in a way, since it was an early start of the year's mud season in Russia. general guderina, is a very rainy month of May, in his discovery trips, the bug river and arms in the late May, even in the late observations observed that observed. however, many times were lost because strategic consensus was not established between hitler and okw.
soviet preparations
soviet military intelligence, especially in germany, had established a very widespread and effective news reception network. As a result, they were able to monitor developments in the barbarossa operation. in an article by the soviet union marshal, andrey greçko, they stated that they were aware of the final form of the plan for the operation of the barbarossa, on 11 December 1940, 11 days after the rat's approval. General Filipp Golikov, the president of the group, had informed the Stalin that in December the Hitler had decided to attack the Soviet Union, based on this document and other findings. stalin refused to believe the document, arguing that every document could be falsified. he asked the golikov to develop an intelligence system to ensure that hitler was not bluffing and that he was really preparing for a war in the east. the arrangements of general golikov really went down to extremely fine details. first they followed the sheep in Europe. with the agents placed at key points, they gathered regular information about the sheep presence, breeding and slaughtering in Europe, followed the movements of mutton prices. they wanted to see if there was a different development in sheep slaughtering in Europe. If meat prices drop rapidly, the amount of cuts is increasing. the increase in slaughter will not only increase the supply of meat, but also the sheep skin. this will show that the German army is preparing a large scale for winter clothing. on the other hand, the cloths used for lubrication of guns and normally burned or buried were secretly collected by Soviet agents and sent to the Soviet Union in various ways. the analysis of the oil in these glands was used to examine whether the oil required for the colder climate was used. In addition, fuel samples used in Germany were also used. General Golikov had calculated that when Hitler decided to attack Russia, his army would have to meet the needs of winter clothing, oil and fuel. however, the Hitler assaulted the army before preparing it for the winter conditions, forcing the majority of the Red Army to be destroyed before the winter suppressed, thereby losing its military power and the collapse of the Soviet government. After all, at the Politburo meeting held on June 21, 1941, Gru reported that Germany had no preparation for a war in the East. in fact, they knew that the German forces had built a large army of soldiers and weapons in the eastern boundaries, the numbers, commanders, and deployment areas of a large part of the German divisions. however, this information was not considered a preparation for war.
soviet preparations
In a speech to the generals in the Soviet Union in December, Stalin said that they would attack Germany's country by mentioning the writings of Hitler in Mein Kampf, that they should be ready to repel this attack at all times, and that Hitler thought that the Soviet Union needed four years to be ready. He stated. for this reason, "we must be ready before." and "we will try to delay the war for another two years." He said.

stalin did not consider many warnings of its intelligence services that Germany was preparing to attack. on the other hand, he saw the information coming from the British intelligence as an attempt to make war between Germany and the Soviet Union. According to the documentary series battlefield prepared by the British BBC, Hitler stalin told that the units gathered on the eastern borders of the Reich were gathered in this region in order to avoid an attack from the west. however, on the 13th of june the soviet union of london ambassador i. m. mayski, minister of foreign affairs a. had an interview with eden. In this meeting, it was discussed how Britain could support the Soviet military force if a war broke out between the Soviets and Germany in the near future. The topics discussed are the direct operation of the British air force, the sale of military equipment, and the coordination between the fighting forces and activities of the two countries. this meeting has become one of the first steps of the cooperation between America and Britain and the Soviet Union.

Stalin and some senior Soviet officers thought the Hitler would avoid a two-front war at any cost. I. in world war, germany had fallen into error and the result was a defeat. therefore, they calculated that Germany would not attack the Soviet Union in the West, while still in conflict with Britain. on the other hand, the only way of success that promises success in terms of churchill is that America opens up a more effective war in Germany and opens a front in Germany in the west, the Soviet Union joins the war in Germany, in short, to open a front in Germany. It was reduced. undoubtedly the stalin could see it.
nevertheless, the Soviet Union was preparing for a possible war with Germany. with the baltic countries, half of Poland and the introduction of besarabia and north bukovina into the soviet territory, the line of stalin was now the most important defensive line in the west of the Soviet Union, but far behind the border. instead, a new line of defense, called the Molotov line, was started along the newly formed western borders. however, the construction of this line of defense was not only very slow, but also very close to the border in some areas and was being built without obstruction measures. these positions were easily observed by the German, the positions and orientations of the fire points, in short, the fire system could be analyzed. on the 22nd of June, moreover, most of these blockhouses were quickly suppressed by German artillery. At the start of the general offensive, the Molotov line of defense had not yet been completed.

stalin, on may 5, 1941 in Moscow, the military academy graduates, "a war with Germany is inevitable," he said. "If comrade Molotov succeeds in postponing the war for two or three months, it would be a good chance for us, but you should be able to take measures to increase the tenacity of our troops." General Georgi Jukov, who also served as the head of the Soviet General Staff, sent a general directive to all military headquarters stating that Germany was the most likely enemy.

All the forces and the three fleets of the Soviet fleet are the first strategic level in the west, which is bounded by the German military upper authority, in the west, to the border with Germany. These divisions are a total of 170 tanks, mechanized, cavalry and infantry divisions. 56 of the divisions were located very close to the western border. the remaining 114 divisions were behind. However, on June 13, 1941, these troops were also ordered to move closer to the border. troops in other military regions were given the same-day command to move west. these unity commanders were not initially informed about new deployments. for example, all forces in the ural military region were moved to the west.
In contrast to the views of Hitler and Okw, the Soviet Union was not weak at all. The rapid industrialization of the Soviet economy in the 1930s had led to the second place in industrial production after the US. this level of industrial production was equal to that of Germany. the war industry has grown steadily, and in the pre-war years the economy was regularly directed to the war industry. In the early 1930s, the Red Army had developed a highly advanced military action theory and was introduced in 1936 by field regulations.

According to taylor and proektor, the soviet forces in the western regions were weak with 2.6 million according to the forces of the German and its allies. The total number of forces under the Soviet Union is 5 million. 2.6 million of these forces are located in the west of the country, 1.8 million in the east, and the remaining part is in different locations or in education. these figures are the figures for the forces in the first strategic tier and do not include the forces in the second strategic tier, which is narrower. viktor suvorov writes that the 77, which constitutes the second strategic tier, is a force of uniformity. the second-tier forces began to be referred to the western parts of the country on the orders they took on June 13, and were still on their way to reinforce the forward lines when the German offensive began. the reinforcement of the front line with these units would be completed on 10 July. total german and allied forces is a general figure. of the German troops, 3.3 million troops participated in the operation, but some of them did not participate in the first operation as reserve troops. in the meantime, a force of about 600,000 was provided by the allies of Germany, but they joined the operations later.

in this case the total number of hammer forces available in the barbarossa operation is over 3.9 million. on June 22, when the offensive began, the German forces had established a supremacy along the front with 98 divisions, including 29 armored divisions. Ninety percent of the troops were motorized forces and attacked a 1,200 km front line from the baltic sea to the Carpathians. nkvd border units and soviet 1st tier divisions took place against this general attack. the first strategic cadres were deployed in the western special military zone just behind the front. it was planned that these advanced troops would be attacked after the completion of the settlement in the regions of the strategic secondary level, ie about two weeks later. 41% of these units were located in a 200 km long line close to the border and fuel, materials and railway wagons were collected in the vicinity of this region due to the order of the Red Army.

also the war continued as the Red Army became increasingly powerful. however, in the years of 1941, a slight numerical superiority was maintained in terms of manpower. According to mikhail meltyuhov, the total number of red army personnel at the beginning of the war is 5.774.211. 4.605.321 of these numbers are ground forces, 475.656 of them are air force, 353.752 are navy, 167.582 are border guards and 171.900 are nkvd units.

however, in some important weapon systems, the soviet numerical superiority is evident. for example, the tanks have a large numerical advantage. there were 23.106 tanks in the red army at this time, 12.782 in the five military areas in the west. The total number of tanks in the German armored units is 3.200. on the other hand, most of the vehicles in the newly formed German divisions were French vehicles captured in the france campaign and were inadequate for an operation in the east. Three of these five military areas to the west are opposite the forces of the outcry. however, the general supply, maintenance and vigilance situation is quite weak. ammunition and radios were inadequate. many unions did not have sufficient means of transport to provide complementary supply beyond the main ammunition and fuel stocks.
In fact, from 1938 onwards, the Soviet senior administration distributed armored vehicles to the infantry divisions to use as an infantry support weapon. but after the experience of the winter war, and with the observations based on the france expedition of the German armed forces, they developed the concept of German armored unity to their armed forces and began to collect a large number of armored vehicles within the large armored divisions and corpses. this restructuring was partially completed at the dawn of the barbarossa campaign. furthermore, the mechanized corpses did not have enough tanks to be given in accordance with their structural forces.

wehrmacht has a total of 5,200 tanks, of which 3,350 have been allocated to the eastern front of the barbarossa. This shows that the Red Army has a superiority of 1 to 4 in the tank. the best soviet tanks t-34s are the most modern tanks in the world, and the kv series is the best armored combat vehicle. the most advanced soviet tank models t-34 and kv-1 were not present in sufficient numbers at the beginning of the war, but only 7.2% of the total of red armored armored. but this is technically superior to the 1861 modern tank, 1.404 German panzer III and panzer IV, which are the middle class tanks. nevertheless, in the use of such effective weapons of the red army, lack of training and experience, there was no radio in the tanks.

The soviet numerical advantage of heavy weapons was compensated by the much better combat effectiveness and education levels of German troops. Most of the Soviet Corps commanders and other senior officers were removed from the army by the great cleansing of stalin in 1936-1938. Only six of the 90 generals arrested, 36 of the 180 commanders, and 7 of the 57 corps commanders were able to survive. A total of about 30 thousand red army personnel were executed. more than that, they were driven to siberia and politically reliable officers were replaced. three of the five marshal and two-thirds of the corps and division commanders were shot. this led to the fact that the younger, less experienced officers came to the large unit of command. for example, in 1941, 75% of officers were in the place where they had been in less than a year. an average soviet corps commander was 12 years younger than the average German division commander. these officers were very reluctant to take the initiative and were not adequately trained in their duties.

The number of aircraft also has the supremacy of soviet. however, soviet aircraft were mostly old-style aircraft. the Soviet artillery also lacked modern fire control techniques. soviet air elements in the first days of the operation, instead of spreading on the ground in order to be close to the regular rows, luftwaffe pilots made them easy targets. moreover, the Soviet air force banned the lowering of German reconnaissance aircraft, despite hundreds of reconnaissance flights of the luftwaffe on the Soviet airspace before the operation.

In the first phase of the war on the eastern front, the soviet war force was severely limited due to the lack of modern aircraft. soviet predator fleets included a number of old-style aircraft such as polikarpov i-15 and polikarpov i-16. The models such as mig-3, lagg-3 and yak-1, one of the successful fighter models of the Soviet air force, were produced in 1941 for less than a year. but when these planes began to take part in the operations from September 1941, the messerschmitt bf 109 or later model was weak as well as the German fighter aircraft fw 190. There were several models of radio, but it was not used enough to make it work. the weak performance of the soviet air force in the winter war that clashed with Finland increased the confidence of the luftwaffe and ultimately dominated the soviet airspace. on the other hand, standard flight trainings were accelerated for the German airstrike in 1942 or later. but soviet pilot training was too much. Flight training was accelerated and shortened by the order of the Soviet Defense Commissariat on 22 December 1940 and numbered 0362. the soviet air force had 201 mig-3 and 37 mig-1 aircraft ready to use on 22 June 1941. However, only four pilots have been trained to use these aircraft.
The Red Army troops were unprepared and disorganized to meet a general offensive. there were not enough transport vehicles to facilitate and accelerate their referral to any conflict zone. Although the Red Army had many and effective guns, there were no ammunition in some batteries. In most of the artillery elements, there were no tools to move the balls. tank units were rarely well-equipped and lack of training as well as logistical support was not enough. the overall supply and maintenance standards were very poor. Unions, ammunition, refueling, replacement fuel stock, without change and replenishment personnel were put into battle. in most cases, the troops were destroyed in a single conflict or unable to fight. the army was in the process of reorganizing the tank troops in large armored corps and was also scattered.

in short, the red army seemed at least equally powerful to the German army on paper in the middle of 1941. however, the reality was much more noticeable, inadequate officers, partial material deficiencies, inadequate means of transport and poor training in replenishment and integration work, have brought serious disadvantages for the Red Army.
Just a week after Hitler gave his unofficial approval for the barbarossa operation, British intelligence received clues in August 1940 on German plans for a general offensive against the Soviet Union. Stalin naturally did not trust this information from Britain, and thought it was a deception, a game that was being prepared to bring the Soviet Union into the war. stalin's own intelligence agency, and american intelligence, warned of a general German offensive in the spring of 1941. but stalin did not consider these warnings. he generally accepted the possibility of an offensive and carried out serious preparations, but decided not to incite the Hitler provocation. he also had little faith in the molotov-ribbentrop non-aggression treaty, which was signed two years ago and was not based on realistic foundations. he believed that Britain was trying to spread such rumors to trigger a war between the Soviet Union and Germany. as a result, the red army border units were never vigilant. in some cases (although on April 10th a partial vigilance had been put in place), the offense required jurisdiction to respond. therefore, when the German offensive began, they were completely unprepared.

When the German forces attacked, an enormous Soviet military force had been gathered at the western borders. these forces, however, became very vulnerable as a result of tactical doctrine changes in the Red Army. In 1938, with the encouragement of general dimitri pavlov, the line defense system was adopted with other nations. in this defense order, the troops are spread along a line with little depth and are not allowed. The infantry divisions reinforced with a tank element, including the staff, will be buried in shelters to form dense fortified belts. then the france expedition came to be surprising. the French army was considered one of the most powerful armies in the world, but was defeated in six weeks. the soviet analysis on this was based on incomplete information, and the collapse of france was explained by the lack of line defense and the lack of armored reserves.

the soviet military region is determined to avoid this mistake. As a solution, infantry divisions would now be transformed into large organizations instead of being buried in heavily fortified defense lines. Most of the tanks in hand were arranged as 29 mechanized corpses, each with more than 1,031 tanks, as standard. When the Germans attacked, the armored pioneer forces would strike and destroy the German mechanized corps. he would then defeat infantry troops, defenseless German infantry troops in the march of approach. The Soviet left wing in Ukraine was strongly reinforced as the strategic siege force, and after leaving the German southern armies out of the war, it would clear the troops in this section by drawing a wide arc into the interior of Poland and the German central armies' group. the red army, after the destruction of the besieged German armies began to attack in Europe.
theory of the Soviet offensive plans
Immediately after the general attack on the Soviet Union, the Hitler asserted that the red army was making extensive preparations to attack Europe. thus, he wanted to justify the German attack as a preventive war. After the war, this view has been put forward by some wehrmacht leaders like wilhelm keitel.

This thesis has been re-constructed in the 1980s with some of the events being examined indirectly and treated as evidence. This analysis concludes that the red army troops have been piled up in the western boundaries proposed by the marshal Jukov and secretly enacted by the marshal aleksandr al-Vasilevsky and Marshal Nikolai Vatutin. accepted operative targets were to isolate Germany from its allies, especially from Romania. romania, due to its oil reserves, is a vital source country for germany to sustain the war.

According to Viktor Suvorov, Stalin used Hitler as a tool against the West. Suvorov describes Hitler's role as an icebreaker. stalin's thought that the aggressive plans of the hitler towards Europe would provide ground for their plan. the soviet union would attack Europe when the capitalist countries were sufficiently worn out in their conflict. to this end, adolf hitler was provided with important political support and material. the red army, meanwhile, was preparing to liberate the entire european occupation of germany. suvorov, like hitler, suggests that the German barbarossa operation was a preemptive attack, which benefited from the gathering of Soviet troops at the border in 1941. Some sections such as mihail meltyuhov also oppose the thesis that suvorov is preparing for an offensive of the soviet union. for them both sides were preparing for the attack, but this was totally independent of being a response to the preparations of the other party.

Although these arguments were supported by some historians and attracted public attention in some countries, they were not generally accepted by Western historians. from here on, I will explain the order of combat.
pivot forces
The group of northern armies under the command of general wilhelm von leeb consists of two armies, the 1st air squadron and the fin army, accompanying the 4th panzer army of general erich hoepner.
a group of central armies under the command of the general fedor von bock, the 4th army under the command of günther von kluge, the general gov It consists of.

The group of southern armies under the command of general gerd von rundstedt is composed of the 1st panzer group and the 5th air fleet, consisting of the three armies of the European allied forces and general paul ludwig ewald von kleist. The missing troops consisted of two Hungarian, two Romanian army and Hungarian armies.
samuel w. According to the study of mitcham, wehrmacht brought a force consisting of a total of 148 divisions to the eastern front. 19 of these divisions are panzer and 15 are motorized units. The weapons brought to the front are 3.350 panzer, 7.184 ball and mortar with various diameters, 2.770 aircraft, 6 thousand motor vehicles and 625 thousand horses. the total number of soldiers is approximately 2.5 million.

The general guderian stated that 145 divisions were reserved for the eastern expedition while the number and distribution of the total division of the wehrmacht. According to guderian, the total division of the wehrmacht is 205. The distribution of these divisions included a division in Denmark, 39 divisions in the West, 12 divisions in Norway, 7 divisions in the Balkans and 2 divisions in North Africa. there is a force of 145 divisions. Regardless of the number of divisions allocated to the eastern expedition, historians and German generals agree that the garrisons in the west and Norway are much larger than necessary. essentially there are 10 panzer divisions in the hands of the wehrmacht. but before the barbarossa operation, a panzer procession was created by the hitler's orders and new panzer divisions were created. Thus, the number of panzer divisions increased to 21. German generals tried to oppose the practice, arguing that the striking power of the panzer divisions was thus weakened. however, Hitler thought that for Russia's vast land and the ability of red army units to be surrounded by movements in this vast field, more armored divisions would be required. on the other hand, it was argued that the reduction of the number of panzer in divisions would be eliminated by the red army's technological backwardness and by the presence of more advanced tanks instead of light tanks in panzer divisions. indeed, almost all the pz-i and pz-ii light tanks within the panzer units were replaced with pz-iii and pz-iv mid-range tanks.
soviet forces
When the German offensive against the Soviet territory began on June 22, 1941, the Red Army was organized on four fronts in the European territory of the Soviet Union. In the Soviet military practice the front is a military organization in the setting of a group of armies in the German land forces.

When the German offensive began, Jukov's orders were immediately transformed into the northern front of the Leningrad military district, the northwestern special military zone to the northwest front, the western special military district to the western front, and the special military district of Kiev to the southwestern front. The special military region of Odessa was reorganized as the southern front on June 25, 1941.

The first strategic management was established on July 10, 1941, under the command of Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, as the strategic management of the Northwest, under the command of Marshal Semyon Timoshenko under the command of the Western Strategic Management and the Marshal Semyon Budyonni.

the forces of the northwest military region consist of two wings. the northern façade under the command of general markian popov and the northwest façade under the command of the general fyodor kuznetsov. as well as the naval forces, the northern and Baltic fleets are also attached to this administration.
the forces of the western military region consist of the western front of general grigoryevich pavlov.
the southwestern military region consists of the southwest front of the general mihail kirponos and the southern façade under the command of general ivan tyulenev. the Black Sea Fleet is also under the command of the military zone.
In addition to the armies of the front, another six armies are located in the western part of the Soviet Union. these armies were divided into 18 as the army, the 19th army, the 20th army, the 21st army, the 22nd army and the 24th army as independent units and the stavka reserve group. they were directly connected to stalin. and we're moving to the invasion ...
opening phase (June 22, 1941 - July 3, 1941)
The important cities in the Soviet occupation in Poland were taken under intense fire by the artillery artillery at 3:15 am on June 22nd, 1941. It is difficult to determine the forces of the parties in this first phase of the operation. Most of the figures of the German forces include the elements of discretion which are allocated to the eastern front but do not yet enter into battles. on June 22, roughly three million wehrmacht soldiers took action against the Soviet troops, which were slightly smaller than them and spread across the border. approximately 3.2 million German land soldiers participated in the battle or were allocated for the eastern campaign. about 500 thousand rumen, hungarian, slovak and croatian and italian military joined the german forces. on the other hand, on 22 June, finland launched its own war against the soviet union. The Finnish forces did not attack leningrad or the other targets of the German army, nor did they engage in destructive activities such as the Jewish massacre. There is also a Spanish division among the apostles. The blue divisor is a sequence of volunteer volunteers. The contribution of Germany's allies has generally not been effective until later stages. The German offensive was a complete surprise. stavka was warned by various reports of German troops advancing towards the border, and at around 00:30 he ordered the border troops to be warned that the war was close;

luftwaffe has intensified its activities to determine the discovery elements for the destruction of soviet troops, gathering areas, temporary storage tanks and airports. The task of the main elements of the luftwaffe was to neutralize the Soviet air force. The first day of the operation this task was not fully fulfilled. in fact, the soviet air force was keeping the planes in bulk rather than spreading them to different airports, and therefore the aircraft were easy targets. luftwaffe claims to have destroyed 1,489 soviet aircraft on the first day of the operation. Hermann Göring, the chief of the Luftwaffe, did not trust these figures and ordered them to be controlled. the siege of soviet airfields that were later discovered on the wreckage of more than 2 thousand soviet aircraft were destroyed. luftwaffe lost 35 airplanes in the first day's air clashes. The Germans claim that they destroyed 3,100 Soviet aircraft within the first three days of the operation. in reality the losses of the Soviet aircraft are higher. According to the Russian historian Viktor Kulikov, the losses were 3.922. Regardless of the figures regarding the Soviet losses, the luftwaffe will ultimately take over the dominance of the air on the entire eastern front and will have an advantage over 1941. in this case, luftwaffe was able to mobilize most of its fleets to support the ground forces.
In various sources, it is claimed that the Soviet troops did not react to the German offensive and avoided using weapons. it is claimed that this was based on the order of provocation from the supreme command. Stalin, at the beginning of the German general offensive, believed that this was not a real offensive. general i.v. tyulenev met general jukov in the kremlin very shortly after the start of the German offensive, and recounts his memoirs of the three wars he later wrote in his book. General Jukov told him, "We have informed Stalin, but for some reason he doesn't want to believe it, he stubbornly believes it is the prostitution of the German generals." He said. viktor suvorov describes the situation in fronts,

"anti-aircraft guns do not fire on German aircraft, Soviet fighter planes were not allowed to drop German planes, the first strategic step soldiers were taken bullets."
on the other hand, in many places, the bridges were not thrown and the German forces took over. therefore, the German forces were not forced to cross the river. The Soviet troops were scattered across the border, defensive preparations were inadequate.

however, the Soviet troops did not remain fully defended after the German general offensive had begun, and some troops attacked without taking orders from the supreme commander. northwest side of the northwest side of the eastern prussia on the morning of June 22 was removed from the attack. On the evening of that day stavka had received orders from this direction, but the offense was continuing throughout the day. some units and some air elements also launched an offensive according to the order from the top commander. the western front, the city of polandy attacked in the direction of Suvalki. also in Finland the hanko naval base occupied 19 candidates from Finland. on the other hand, while the majority of the aircraft connected to the Soviet air force were destroyed on the ground, some fleets flocked to certain targets in the first days of the war. 487 aircraft, for example, connected to the northern and Baltic navies, attacked the Finnish airports and military facilities in Konigsberg on June 22nd. in the south on 26 june, the oil plants in romania were bombed. after several days of bombardment, oil production has fallen by half.
north armies group
Two Soviet Soviets have been deployed in front of the group of German northern armies. in this part the wehrmacht would attack the 4th panzer group with a power of 600 tanks and the offshore line of two soviet armies. The operative goals of the 4th panzer group are the succession of the neman river and the daugava river, which are the two biggest obstacles in the leningrad approach. German tank troops reached a neman within a day and made a split of 80 km. near raseiniai soviet 3rd and 12th mechanized corpses launched a counterattack with 300 tanks. In the four-day clashes, the German forces besieged and destroyed the Soviet troops. Red Army armored units suffered shortage of fuel and ammunition during this time and could not coordinate properly. At the end of the first week the Soviet mechanized corpses lost 90% of their forces. The panzer groups passed the daugava river near daugavpils. At this stage, the German forces were now at the distance of the leningrad. however, due to the deterioration of the supply situation, the hitler ordered the panzer groups to stop the forward movement until the infantry troops came from behind. it took more than a week to wait for infantry troops to wait for the soviet command to bring reinforcements to the leningrad and luga rivers. the Soviet anti-Soviet uprising, which began in Lithuania on 22 June, made the situation of the Red Army troops in the region even more difficult and the next day the independence of Lithuania was declared. an estimated 30 thousand Lithuanian rebels, along with the Lithuanian red army elements, joined with the Soviet forces. when the German forces moved further north, in Estonia an armed resistance against the Soviet forces had begun. the 18th army of the german army reached the bay of finland, august 7, 1941, the estonian war ended.

central armies group
the soviet armies, opposite the German central armies group, were the third army, the 10th army and the 11th army. the soviet armies, bialystok, settled on a ledge extending to the German lines. the eastern part of this region extends to minsk, the capital of the soviet socialist republic of Belarus, and is a very busy railway and road junction. The aim of the two groups of panzer groups under the command of the central armies' general heinz guderian and general hoth was to contact minsk in order to block the withdrawal of the soviet forces in the pocket of bialystok. Arsenal of the two soviet fronts was split by the third panzer group in the north of the pocket and the progressive panzer passed the neman. In the meantime, the bug river, which formed the border of the Polish USSR in the south, was passed by the 2nd Panzer group without any resistance. the Soviet positions immediately behind the river were empty in most areas. While the panzer groups continued their forward movement, the infantry armies of the central armies' group attacked the Soviet forces on the bialystok ledge and the red army forces in the region were besieged.

the beginning of the soviet union in moscow did not fully grasp the weight of the catastrophe. marshal timoshenko gave orders to launch a general counter-attack on all soviet forces. but the destruction of the supply and ammunition depots and the co-ordination of the troops due to the collapse of communication prevented the success of the attacks. General Zhukov signed the No. 3 order of the Defense Commissariat, which was later to be signed under Stalin's pressure. it is ordered to start an offensive against the Red Army. in this order, troops "siege of enemy groups in the vicinity of Suwalki, and destruction of suwalki by June 26" and "vladimir-volynia slaughtered by the enemy groups to be destroyed by the encirclement" and the "Lublin region as of June 24 seizure" is ordered. These counter-offensive attempts by the Red Army failed and the troops were down. The German offensive immediately destroyed these units.
General Hoth's forces captured the minsk from the north on June 26, 1941. advanced elements moved towards the east of the city. In June 27, the 2nd and 3rd Panzer groups made contact with the east of Minsk. 320 km in the territory of soviet. they advanced and left behind one third of the distance to Moscow. In the vast territory from the border of Poland to the beginning of the attack, the 32 Soviet infantry divisions, eight tanks and motorized divisions, cavalry and artillery divisions were surrounded. minsk, on June 28, 1941 was passed into the hands of the German forces. general hoth and general guderian's panzer groups continued to move eastward, leaving the smallest possible infantry elements behind. but the general commander of the general guderian, the 4th army commander general kluge, wanted to use the elements connected to both panzer groups in the liquidation of the soviet troops surrounded by west west of minsk. When Hitler supported his view, the movement of the Panzer groups was halted
southern armies group
In the southern part of the front, the German offensive was on the 5th army, the 6th army and the 26th army. the Soviet command reacted more quickly, and as a result, the German offensive initially faced a more resolute and resolute resistance. German infantry armies attacked in the outbreak sections of these Soviet armies, while the leading elements of the Panzer Group, which consisted of 600 tanks, attacked the right-wing from the 6th Soviet army by targeting Brody. The Soviet mechanized corps launched a counter-attack on the 1st Panzer group, which was held on 26 June with a force of 1,000 tanks. These clashes, which were among the most violent clashes of the barbarossa campaign, continued for four days. Although the German forces were ultimately overwhelming, this win cost heavy losses to the 1st Panzer Group.

As a result of the failure of this counterattack with the introduction of the last important soviet tank forces in western ukraine, the red army forces in the region underwent strategic retreat under the pressure of the German forces. At the end of the first week of the operation, the group of three German armies had reached the main operative goals of harveyat. however, in the vast sieges around minsk and bialystok soviet troops were still resisting. breaking down the resistance of the sieges and narrowing the encircling circles cost the German forces considerable losses. however, some red army troops managed to break through the encircling circles. 600 thousand dead, wounded and captive in terms of red army losses are made as a general estimate. The aircraft loss of the Soviet air force on Kiev was 1,561. the war had resulted in a very brilliant tactical victory. however, he had removed the German forces from an earlier offensive to Moscow and delayed his German progress by 11 weeks. general rusk von tippleskirch, "the Russians lost a war, but won a military expedition," he has written.
second stage, smolensk attack (3 July 1941 - 2 October 1941)
moscow radio broadcast on the morning of july 3 stalin'in. stalin:
"comrades, citizens, brothers, those who fight in the army and in the navy, I call you friends"
she called on all soviet peoples to fight against the invasion, to organize and mobilize partisan activities in the occupied territories, to order nothing left to be used by the enemy in the event of a withdrawal, to be transported or destroyed.

The troops of the infantry divisions advancing more heavily arrived on the siege of the Soviet troops, and on 3 July the hitler approved the panzer troops to continue from where they had been to the east. but on the one hand the mud caused by the summer rains of Russia, on the other hand the hardening Russian resistance slowed down the forward operation of the panzer units. this delay provided the time for the soviet supreme commander to set up counterattacks against the German central armies. however, the German war declaration of July 11 states that only 329 thousand prisoners were captured in the northern and central armies, and 1,800 guns and 3,340 armored vehicles were seized. it also suggests that 89 red army divisions were destroyed completely or partially.

general guderian 's left wing, dinyeper'i defended the three points on July 10 and July 11, 1941 passed. Despite the violent attacks on the wings, he continued to advance in the direction of smolensk and on 16 July 1941 he took over the city. the central part of the region reached desna on July 20 and occupied elnya. The most extreme goal of the group of central armies is the smolensk on the main transportation lines from the east to Moscow, which is considered the entrance gate of Moscow. The smolensk approach is being held by six soviet armies, which have taken part in a previously existing line of defense. the Soviet forces attacked the 3rd Panzer army on July 6 with a counterattack backed by 700 tanks. the German defense continued with the help of a very superior air superiority and repelled red army attacks. 3. After the Panzer army erupted against the Soviet counter-attack, Smolensk moved north from the 2nd Panzer army and crossed the Dnieper River from the south. the soviet armies between these two offensive lines had been trapped in their region. Panzer troops completed the siege on July 26 and took 180 thousand red army soldiers. However, during the 10-day clashes, more than 100 thousand soldiers were able to escape the German siege clamp and retreated to Moscow.
American history magazine, "Hitler will destroy the Red Army," declared the readers of the Smolensk battle. however, the German losses to date are 390 thousand, 28,000 of which are dead. the total of losses in the battles in all these regions, Poland, Norway, France, North Africa, the Balkans, until the June 22, 1941, when the German armies attacked Poland, on which the Barbarossa operation began on September 1, 1939, is almost equal to this figure. Although the total number of Soviet warriors captured until this date totaled 700 thousand people, the German losses were found at eleven percent of the force at the beginning of the campaign. however, the soviet government was able to mobilize human resources. In the north, at the end of July, female warriors were also found among the Red Army. When the fourth week of the operation was over, the German command realized that the Soviet power had been underestimated. the German troops had exhausted their initial supply stocks before they had access to the expected freedom of strategic action. operation was slowed to ensure integration. the time slowed down would be used to adapt the strategy to the new situation. the liberation of several soviet soldiers from the sieges had shaken the Hitler's belief in the success of the operation. at this stage, the Hitler began to think that the Soviet Union could be defeated by a series of strikes in the economic sphere. these economic coups should have been in the field of industrial capacity necessary to sustain the war. harkov and donets basin, which are important industrial centers in the south, and later the Caucasus oil fields should be taken. Leningrad, which is also an important center of war industry, had to be taken in a short time. the hitler, on the other hand, also attached importance to contacting the fins in the north.

General Fedor von Bock and almost all other generals who participated in the operation were in favor of continuing the operation in the direction of Moscow. In addition to the psychological importance of capturing the enemy capital, it was also considered that Moscow was the most important transport-junction of the country and that it accommodated most of the facilities of the war industry. Most importantly, according to German intelligence reports, the majority of the Red Army had been gathered around Moscow. the hitler, however, ordered the general guderian to overthrow his supreme commander, general von bock, of the panzer of the central armies, temporarily halting in the direction of Moscow, and shifting north and south.
third stage, south and kiev (2 October - 5 November 1941)
some generals, including the general halder, believed that the Moscow-based offensive should be continued to destroy and destroy the red army forces that were gathered in front of Moscow and Moscow. Hitler, on the other hand, feared that the red army would go back to Moscow in general. Napoleon, too, headed directly to Moscow, and General Kutuzov retreated the Russian armies. According to hitler, turning the wings into wings would be an additional gain in this respect. Because of the heavy threat on Moscow, red army troops will now convene, and when they return to Moscow, these troops could be gripped. furthermore, while the Soviet contingents were flowing into this region, operations in the south and north of the front would have been facilitated. Hitler, in a sense, "wants to attack the enemy in one direction by pulling the direction of the other direction". then the frontal and south of the façade of the mosque was taken to move forward. here was a huge-scale cannae type operation that hitler wanted to do.

in this context, hitler issued an order on 19 July and changed the main axis of the operation. According to this order, two panzer groups will be taken from the front of the central armies group. The troops of the general guderian will be turned to the south for the soviet forces in the Kiev region and the troops of the general hoth will be turned north to cut the Moscow - Leningrad connection. At the disposal of the group of central armies will be left infantry elements that will continue to progress only in the direction of Moscow. however, for the implementation of this maneuver, the Soviet troops in the east of Smolensk - Roslavl had to be destroyed. these operations, however, lasted longer than expected, due to the Soviet resistance and counter-attacks, the operation was completed only in late July. thereafter, a period of time had to be reserved for the repair and maintenance of armored units. while the discussions and the rest of the armored units continued, the general halder and the marshal brauchitsch gave a hit to the hitler on 19 August. Hitler also rejected this, and on 21 August he renewed his previous order, which for the Panzer groups had driven south and north. In August, some developments in the southern part of the frontier were concerned, and, in a sense, aroused the idea that hitler's decision was in place. a fierce Red Army offensive had begun in the left wing of the southern armies. the attack of the powerful Russian cavalry troops attacking the pripyat marsh, as well as the stopping of the sixth army of general Walter von Reichenau in front of Kiev, created a critical situation.
meanwhile, in mid-July, German troops approached a few kilometers to the south of the pripyat marsh. Near the uman, the three soviet armies were trapped between these two German forces, with the east of the German 17th army attacking and the 1st Panzer army moving south. German infantry forces narrowed the pocket while tanks also crossed the Dnieper. meanwhile, the 2nd Panzer army, which left the Central Army group, passed the Desna River, on the right wing of the 2nd Army. the two panzer armies trapped the four soviet armies and some parts of the two armies with this movement.

For the last attack on leningrad, the 4th panzer army was reinforced by tanks from the central armies group. the German army and estonian partisans, forest brothers, sailed to the peipus lake, throwing soviet forces, and the 16th German army attacked the northeast defense on 8 August. At the end of August, the 4th Panzer army had entered a distance of 48 km in the direction of Leningrad. in the meantime, the Finnish forces advanced on both sides of Ladoga Lake and reached the Soviet-Finnish border before the winter war.

at this stage, hitler, taking captive ordered the destruction of the city. Following this order, on September 9, 1941, the group of northern armies began a final offensive against Leningrad. 11 km in ten days. they made progress. but the last ten kilometers of progress was very slow and the losses were high. Hitler's attitude towards leningrad changed at this stage. he ordered the city not to be attacked by leningrad, and to condemn the city to starvation. the decision to take some armored elements under the command of the central armies to the order of the group of northern armies was also effective for the final offensive against Moscow in this change of attitude.

Before the start of the Moscow offensive, the Kiev operation must be concluded. While the southern armies moved north from the bridgeheads on the Dnieper, half of the central armies attacked south towards the rest of the Soviet forces in the south of Kiev. the soviet troops near kiev was held on September 16, 1941. the Soviet forces were crushed by tanks, guns and air bombings. After ten days of violent clashes, the Germans claimed that over 600 thousand Red Army soldiers were taken prisoner. actual losses are 452,720 persons and officers, 3,867 parts are ball and haven. The 43th division of Soviet 5th, 21st, 26th and 37th armies remained out of war.
fourth stage
The most critical phase of the barbarossa operation came at a time when there were already problems with supply due to mud caused by the rains of October. the group of central armies were ordered to proceed in the direction of Moscow. changes were made in the organizational structure of the three armies. The group of northern armies was assigned to the central group of armies to transfer to the group of troops, to complete the siege of leningrad, to narrow the circle but not to take the city. two of the southern armies were shifted to the three divisional central armies, one of which was panzer and one with a motorized division, and an assault was ordered in the direction of Crimea, Kharkov and Rostov. a large part of the forces gathered in the central armies group. these forces were made into a force of 1.5 million, including 46 infantry divisions, 15 panzer divisions, 9 mechanized divisions, 6 paramilitary divisions and a cavalry division.

The panzer pioneer abteilung elements of the second panzer division were advanced enough to see the Kremlin's towers. They were located on the railway line just south of lobnya and 16 km to Moscow. It was away. The Red Army troops defending the capital in the Moscow war took advantage of better supply conditions and were reinforced with fresh divisions from Siberia. ultimately, the German troops in the front of the Moscow managed to throw back. they were under the same winter conditions, but at least they were better equipped in terms of clothing. in the same way, they transported in the ice and snow covered land, excavated in the same degree of frozen soil, the same degree of freezing of the fuel they used. The majority of the Soviet counter-attacks were directed towards the front of the German central armies group, which was closest to Moscow.

After the battle of kiev, the red army had no numerical advantage over the German forces. and even worse, there is no substitute troops trained in the case of the Soviet armies. stalin for the defense of the mosque 83 had a force of 800 thousand people. but in fact the force that can be effective is not over 25 divisions.

The typhoon operation, which was the German offensive directly directed to moscow, was launched on 2 October 1941. however, the fourth panzer group of the general erich hoepner was taken from the order of the northern armies and given to the general kluge. a well-organized series of defense lines was formed against the front of the central armies group, the first line of defense was in the vicinity of vias and the second line of defense in the Moscow region.

from the south of oryol, the main defensive lines of soviet 121 km. The attack by the 2nd Panzer army from the south was a complete surprise for the Soviet defense. three days later the German army 2 attacked the west while panzer moved to bryansk. soviet 3rd and 13th army were besieged. In the north, the 3rd and 4th Panzer army attacked the viasma, trapping the 19th army, the 20th army, the 24th army and the 32nd army. the first lines of defense of Moscow are scattered. 673 thousand soviet soldiers were captured by the Germans. The total number of soviet military personnel imprisoned since the beginning of the German attack has reached three million. 90 thousand people and 150 tanks remained in the defense of Moscow.
the third panzer army on Moscow on 13 October 1941, 140 km. distance reached. thereafter, a state of emergency was declared in Moscow. the weather was worsening from the very beginning of the typhoon. the region was under constant rainfall and the heat was falling. unpaved roads soon turned into mud bog. these negative conditions, the direction of the German forward movement in the Moscow reduced to 3 - 3.5 km per day. replenishment status also deteriorated rapidly. On October 31, the German high command ordered the troops to stop while the armies were being rearranged. this pause provided time for the soviet supreme commander to provide a better replenishment situation, to gather positions and to organize new reserve forces.

When the air gradually became cold (general winter nibs), on 15 November, when the soil began to freeze, the German attack began again. Despite the fact that the troops started to progress, there was no development in the supply. the Soviet defense against the German progress is composed of the 5th, 16th, 30th, 43th, 49th and 50th armies. The German plan is in the form of crossing the Moscow canal and flanking Moscow from the northeast, under the leadership of the 3rd and 4th Panzer armies. the second panzer army attacking in the direction of tula to progress to the south from Moscow. the fourth panzer army would attack from the center for a soviet counter-offensive that could develop from the advance of the forward movement of these two wings. the lack of fuel and ammunition for two weeks, and in spite of all-out attacks, the progress towards Moscow seemed almost creeping. however, the second Panzer army was stopped in the south. The Soviet 49th army, which was strengthened by the Siberian troops, and the Soviet counter-attacks, which were aggravated by the 50th army, won an unexpected success against the 2nd Panzer army on November 22nd. however, the fourth Panzer army managed to overthrow the Moscow canal by throwing back its Soviet 16th army and embarked on siege maneuvers.

German troops 258. infantry division of some troops on December 2, 24 km from Moscow. managed to get stuck up. the Kremlin's towers seemed from the spot where they were. but immediately after the first snowstorm in the winter began. German armies were not equipped according to winter conditions. the losses caused by cold and disease were more than combat losses, and the losses in the last three weeks were 155 thousand. some divisions had lost half of their combatants. extreme cold caused serious problems in weapons and equipment, and the luftwaffe could not provide the necessary air support to ground troops.

when it was found that there was no chance of success, it was decided to stop the attack and to withdraw all the units to the kaluga - viyazma line. but at the last moment for the 4th army of the hitler "4. the army will not withdraw even a single step." ordered. on the one hand, the guderian general guderian in the right wing of the 4th army was able to withdraw the forces that had caused heavy losses in the vicinity of the tula. the red-army counter-attacks suddenly threw these troops behind the river. on the other hand, the troops of the general hoepner on the left wing of the 4th army were threatened by the siege.
with the latest reinforcements, the red army forces in the Moscow region had reached half a million, and the Soviet troops launched a general counter-attack on December 5, while the German forces were at least 320 km. they managed to throw back. The German losses in this operation, which was attempted for the invasion of the Soviet Union, resulted in 250,000 deaths and 500,000 casualties. the majority of these losses were lost in early October. on the other hand, the losses of waffen-ss, as well as the allies of germany, eg hungary, romania and fin are not known.
south, stalingrad and maykop
hitler, the central armies group to re-attack the mosque when the southern armies had set an operational plan for the group. The blow to the Red Army in the Kiev region was already a very heavy blow. and then the stavka was in a hurry to the defense of the capital. an operation in the south was thought to be easier. even the left wing of the forces involved in the operation was 650 km. it was not even cared for. The front line of the southern armies, as of 1 September, roughly lies on the Novgorod - Dnipro - Crimean isthmus line. Hitler's targets for marshal gerd von rundstedt were to reach the voronej - rostov line in the first place, to cross the don river with the left wing to stalingrad and to attack maykop via rostov with his right flank. however, he managed to bring new divisions to stavka, moscow and the southern part. the left wing of the marshal von rundstedt, the 6th army, stopped after passing the Kursk. the 17th army immediately to the south could not proceed. the 1st panzer army of the general von kleist, which ultimately formed the most violent offensive arm, was stopped by the counter-attacks against the left-handed left side of the Soviet forces. however, the 3rd panzer corps entered rostov on November 22nd. but as a result of the fierce red army attacks, the city was evacuated on 28 November and 80 km. he had to withdraw to the west. the withdrawal of the German forces from rostov is the first retreat of this caliber. In spite of these results, the 11th army of marshal von rundstedt succeeded in capturing the Crimean peninsula, with the exception of kosastopol and the eastern end of the kerch peninsula.

reasons for the initial Soviet defeat
The Red Army was not prepared for the surprise attack of the Axis forces, and in 1941 it was heavily defeated. on the other hand, the German armed forces had created a useful experience in the battles until 1941, especially in the light of the blitzkrieg. it also had a doctrine on German forces, mobility, destruction of enemy forces and impeccable communication. on the other hand, they were confident that low casualties would continue.

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